Cortes goes to
in Old and
of the Valley.
received letters from the president of the
making these preparations he employed his major domo who was named Esquival. This officer crossing the
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made as to his death, God pardon him his sins! Cortes appointed other officers to complete the preparations for his voyage. He offered by proclamation a free passage to all such Spaniards as obtained a permission from the government to go to Castille, and a supply of provisions to them on the voyage.
things being ready, and having confessed and comulgated,
he embarked in company with Sandoval, Tapia, and other cavaliers, and after a
voyage of forty one days arrived in
Cortes sent an express to his Majesty, and also to his patrons at court, informing them of his arrival, and also of the death of his friend Sandoval, whole merits and services were known to his Majesty, and for whole loss he was pleased to express great regret. The Duke of Bejar and the Count of Aguilar, on receiving the intelligence, waited on his Majesty, but found him in possession of it by the letter of Cortes. His Majesty seemed to have at present a conviction of that officer’s loyalty, for which his friend the Duke of Bejar had been three times, obliged to engage his life, for he was pleased to order that in all the cities and towns through which Cortes passed, he should be received with the highest honour.
with a grace peculiar to himself, insomuch that Donna Maria de Mendoza began to entertain thoughts of an alliance between her sister and Cortes. However in marriages as in other cases it is the hand of God which leads us, and therefore no more need be said upon the subject. Donna Maria was so taken with the politeness and generosity of Cortes, that she wrote to the commendador of Leon laying, that the same of Cortes and his heroic actions was far short of the judgment which mull be formed of him, by those who had the good fortune of his acquaintance, and brought over her husband completely to his interest.
general arrived at court, his Majesty was pleased to appoint the apartments to
receive him, and his friends came out in a body to meet him on the road. On the
ensuing day he went by permission to throw himself at his Majesty’s feet, being
attended by the Duke of Bejar, the admiral of the
the Count de Nasao, who was nearest to the Emperor. This gave great offence to many though others said it was by the Emperor’s desire. Indeed Cortes began to feel his elevation so much, that it made him not hold some of his former patrons in the estimation he ought, all his attention being bellowed on the Duke of Bejar, the Count de Nasao, and the admiral. Thinking that now the ball was at his foot with the support of such great men, he applied to the Emperor for the government of New Spain; this request, though supported by his patrons, did not succeed, his Majesty thinking he had done sufficiently and that some of his attention was due to those conquerors, by whose assistance he had gained that country. From this time Cortes did not seem so much in favour as before.
Majesty was then proceeding on his journey to
now relate some other circumstances, such as I have heard concerning him while
he resided in Castille. One was, that Queen Isabella
was not his friend on account of the appearances of ingratitude in his conduct
to his patrons, and also in consequence of the inferiority of the presents
which he made her. However she ordered in the Emperor’s absence, that he should
have every support from the council of the
if found guilty, to execute Cortes. They were now on the most amicable and
intimate footing. Don Pedro told him that even his innocence would have been
sufficiently expensive to him, as the coils of the expedition, which he must
have paid, amounted to upwards of three hundred thousand crowns. All those, and
other particulars we received an account of in private letters, as well from
the Marquis del Valle, as from other persons. He now sent a gentleman to
gentleman, Juan de Herrada, was a brave soldier, who
attended Cortes in his expedition to
Holiness on the receipt of the letters returned thanks to God for the opportunity
of making so many thousand converts to the holy faith. He also praised the
services rendered by us, to the church and our monarch, and sent us bulls of
indulgence from penalties of our sins, with others for churches and hospitals.
In regard to the tithes, I do not know what was done. The Indians were brought
to dance before his Holiness and the cardinals, who expressed their high
satisfaction at their performances. After Herrada had
concluded his business at
Cortes was in Castille, the members of the royal court of audience arrived in
agents now called loudly for a final repartition; but the factor had persuaded
the president and oydors, not to agree to that which
would be a diminution of their influence, by taking so much patronage out of
their hands. It was also settled, that Salazar should go to
from his Majesty’s orders, for they were, that he should govern solely; nor was any thing said of associating Guzman with him; whereas the latter usurped the government to himself entirely, from the time he was appointed president of the court. He was much regretted by all, having conducted himself in such a manner as to give universal satisfaction, nor would he have wanted support if he had insisted on maintaining his office.
A commission was appointed at Guatimala, where Jorge de Alvarado was established, but I do not know the result of it.
sentenced to pay a fine of a certain quantity of gold, and to be banished to
the distance of five leagues from
enemies of the Marquis del Valle now took a new ground of attack against him,
which was, that he had embezzled the treasure of Montezuma and Guatimotzin, and
that he was answerable to the soldiers, not only for that which he had
appropriated to his own use, but also for that which he had sent to Europe as a
present to his Majesty, and which had been captured by the corsair Juan Florin.
A long catalogue of other demands followed, every one of which he was condemned
upon, and his property sold for the payment. One Juan Xuares
his brother-in-law was also at this time brought forward, to demand justice in
open court for the murder of his sister Donna Catalina, offering to produce
witnesses of the manner of her death. Many of us the friends of the Marquis,
seeing the attacks that were made against him, met by appointment and under the
licence of an alcalde, at
the house of one Garcia Holguin, where we entered into a resolution to renounce
all claim to the treasure; but when the oydors heard
our business, they ordered us all to be arrested, as they alleged, for meeting
without permission. We produced to them the licence
which we had obtained for the purpose, but they, to keep up appearances,
banished us to the distance of five leagues from
New matter for confusion was now brought forward; a proclamation was issued that all persons of Indian descent, or of that of Moors, who had been burned or * ensanbenited by the holy inquisition, as far as the fourth degree from their ancestors who had thus suffered, should quit New Spain within four months from the date thereof, on pain of losing one half of their properties. It was most wonderful to see what hosts of accusers and informers started up at once on this occasion, and
what slanders and infamies were brought forward. At last it ended in the expulsion of two individuals.
was generous in fulfilling his Majesty’s commands, in regard to the old
conquerors, who were all well provided for; the
greatest error it committed was, the excessive license given to the branding
slaves. So many were made in the
what they bad got, the only persons deprived being Albornoz of his new year’s gift, one Villaroel, and Villegas.
As soon as the members of the court heard that they were to be superceded, they resolved to dispatch agents to Castille with plenty of witnesses, such as were fit and well prepared for their purpose, to vouch for the propriety of their conduct. It was determined to proceed to the election of the agents who were to be sent on this occasion, and for this purpose all the veteran conquerors, with many other persons of consideration, met in the great church, where the person was to be chosen by vote. Guzman and the oydors recommended the factor Salazar, and although they had committed some improprieties, yet as they had in the main acted so well by us in the distribution of property, we were all well inclined to vote for the person recommended by them, and which they expected us to do. When we had all assembled for the purpose in the great church, there was such a noise and outcry set up by persons who had no business there, but had crouded in, that it was hardly possible to proceed to the election. It was ordered that all who had not been summoned should quit the place, but it was to no effect; they would not go, and at fast the question was obliged to be put to the whole. Since those who had no business there would neither quit the place nor be silent, it may be judged what kind of an election it was when we perceived how matters were going, it was agreed amongst us to adjourn until the following day, at the house of the president of the council, and none were summoned but persons of one way of thinking. Of course it was amicably decided. In consequence of an adjustment, two agents were to be chosen, one, Anthonio de Carvajal, on the part of the oydors, and another, Bernardino Vasquez de Tapia, on that of Cortes. However it appeared to me that both were equally devoted to the views of the president; and it was natural enough, for the latter had rendered much more service to our interest in his short time, than Cortes had done during the long period of his power. But such is the natural loyalty of the Spaniards, that we were more attached
to Cortes, from his having been our captain, than he was to our interests,
although he had his Majesty’s orders to attend to them. Of this a proof now
occurred, for the president and oydors intrigued for
an application to he made to his Majesty, in manner of a petition, against the
appointment or return of Cortes to New Spain, at any future time. The grounds
upon which they moved it were, the dangers that would
occur from public disturbances and factions, which might end in the loss of the
country. This we opposed with all our might, and Alvarado, being at this time
arrived in Mexico with the office of governor and adelantado
of Guatimala, and a commandery
of St. Jago, it was agreed between him and the
friends of Cortes, to lay before his Majesty a statement of the whole affair,
with the views of the members of the council; and it hereby appearing to the
supreme court of the Indies, that all these measures were guided by passion and
interest, it confirmed the original determination to supercede
Guzman and the oydors. The presence of Cortes in
When Nuno de Guzman had received certain intelligence from Old
Spain of his being superceded, he determined to go
upon an expedition to the
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him to be put to the torture by burning his feet, and afterwards upon some
trifling and false allegations caused him to be hanged, which was one of the
wickedest and cruellest actions ever committed by an
officer, and as such it was considered by every Spaniard in his army. He
brought from this province also a number of natives loaded with booty, to the
As I have before related, in consequence of the injustice practised by the former court of audience, his Majesty was pleased to suppress it and cancel all its grants. He also appointed a new one, composed of wise and upright members, whereof D. Sebastian Ramirez de Villaescasa bishop of St. Domingo was president, and the licentiates Maldonado de Salamanca, Zainos de Toro, Vasco de Quiroga de Madrigal afterwards bishop of Mechoacan, and Solomon de Madrid were oydors. These officers being arrived, the court opened its fittings, which was notified by a proclamation, in consequence whereof there assembled such crouds of complainants, from city, towns, and country, of all descriptions, settlers, agents, and native chiefs; alledging acts of partiality and oppression against the former court, and demanding justice, that the members were quite astonished. The demands of the agents of Cortes for what had been unjustly alienated from him, if they had been all to be now repaid, would have amounted to above two hundred thousand crowns. Nuno de Guzman being absent, the whole blame was laid upon him by the other members of the old court, who alledged that they were compelled to act as he thought proper to order them. He was accordingly summoned to appear, which he did not think proper to do, and in the present circumstances it was judged most expedient to refer the affair to the supreme court in Europe: which being done, a civil officer named Torre, a licentiate and native of Badajos, was sent with full power, to the province of Xalisco, and with orders to transmit Guzman to Mexico and commit him to the common goal.
He had also a commission to indemnify us in the costs which we had been fined upon the affair of Narvaez, and those at the time that we were arrested, as I have already related. But I will now take leave for the present of the licentiate Torre, and return to the affairs of the court.
properties of Delgadillo and Matienzo
were sold to pay the damages of those who had gained their causes against them,
and their persons were imprisoned for the deficiency. A brother of Delgadillo who was alcalde major
in Guaxaca, was fined and imprisoned for the same
reason; he died in jail, as did another who was alcalde
amongst the Zapotecans, and certainly the new judges
were so wise and just, that they considered nothing but what was in compliance
with the will of God and his, Majesty. They also shewed
a laudable anxiety for the conversion of the Indians to our holy faith, and
immediately prohibited the branding them for slaves, and made many other good
regulations. After four years thus employed, the oydors
Solomon and Zaynos petitioned for leave to retire,
being both of an advanced age, and very wealthy, and his Majesty in
consideration of their eminent services, was pleased to grant their request.
The president also, by command of his Majesty, repaired to
returned to Castille in poverty, where, as I have heard, they died in the course of two or three years.
time his Majesty was pleased to appoint to the vice-royalty of
The Viceroy, on his arrival, knowing that the licentiate Torre was sent out with orders to arrest Nuno de Guzman, to save Guzman from that insult sent to him to come to Mexico, which he having complied with, the Viceroy assigned him apartments in his palace, and treated him with much politeness. Just about this time Torre arrived with his Majesty’s orders to arrest Guzman, but with directions to communicate them to the Viceroy. It seems that the licentiate did not And the support to his strong measures that he expected, and this exasperating his natural violence, he in consequence went to the Viceroy’s palace, and there furiously seized, and dragged Guzman to the common jail, laying to did it by his Majesty’s order, and that he cared for nothing further. Here Guzman remained for several days, and was at last released on the intercession of the Viceroy. It was well known that Torre had strong powers given to him to act discretionarily in regard to Guzman.
This licentiate was much addicted to card playing, although he
did not game deeply, playing only at triumpho and primero for pastime. His propensity being however well known, some friend of Guzman’s took advantage of it, to mortify and turn him into ridicule, and the method which was taken to do it was as follows. The civilians at that time wore gowns with loose hanging sleeves, into one of which somebody maliciously put a pack of cards, and contrived it in such a manner, that as Torre was walking across the crouded square of Mexico, in company with several persons of quality, a dexterous twitch being given, the cards began to drop from his sleeve, leaving a long trail, of them after him as he went on. Those who saw it laughed and called the attention of others to the cards coming out of the licentiate’s sleeve; but when he found out what the joke was, and that he was the subject of it, being naturally choleric, it enraged him exceedingly, and he went off saying he saw clearly it was their intention to prevent his doing justice, but he would, though he died for it; and that his Majesty should know the indignity that had been offered to his officer. Either from vexation, or a calenture natural to the climate, with which he was seized just after this, he died in the course of a few days, whereby the affair of Guzman, luckily for him, was respited for the present.
having now been a long time in Castille, married to the niece of the Duke of Bejar, advanced to the rank of marquis, captain general of
belong to it, and who were to be his tributaries. Cortes
understood that the head of the family only was considered as the vassal or “vecino,” or that one only should be counted for each house,
but the oydor, doctor Quezada who was sent to allot
his district, insisted that every male adult, master or head of family, son,
servant, or slave, was to be counted in the number, and as there were
frequently twelve or fifteen of those to one house, the Marquis was much
disappointed, and several lawsuits ensued. The matter was reported to his
Majesty, but continued in suspence for several years,
during which time the Marquis received his full rents, without any molestation.
He retired to a place upon his estate named Quernavaca,
where he established his residence, never returning to
Marcos de Aguilar had the government of
month of May, one thousand five hundred and thirty two, the Marquis del Valle
sent two ships from the
this, Cortes sent off two other vessels, one of which was commanded by a
gentleman named Diego Bezerra de Mendoza; he was of
the Bezerras of Badajos or
formed a plot for the assassination of him and several more,
which he put in execution one night as the captain and the others were
sleeping. The sanguinary views of the conspirators went much farther, but the
intercession of two Franciscan friars saved the lives of many who were already
bleeding from their treachery, but whom, together with the friars, they
determined to land in Xalisco. Ximines
taking the command upon the death of Bezerra, and
continuing his route, discovered an island to which he gave the name of
the Marquis great vexation. He now determined not to trust any one, but to go
in person, having three ships ready to launch in the
where the Marquis anxiously expected them, as the provisions, of which he began to be in great want, were on board. Os those vessels which did not join him at Santa Cruz, one was stranded on the coast of Xalisco, and the people on board being tired of the business quitted her there, most of them returning to New Spain. This was the one which contained the provisions. The other came to a bay which they named, from the quantity of guayavas, Guayaval.
During this time the Marquis and those with him were famishing upon this uncultivated island. Twenty three of the soldiers died from absolute distress, and the rest were sinking every day, and cursing his expeditions and discoveries. Their situation and murmurs compelled him at length to go in search of his ships, and he accordingly embarked with fifty soldiers, and judging that they must have been driven on the coast in the storms, he searched in that direction, and after some time found one as before mentioned, stranded on the coast of Xalisco, and abandoned by the people. The other was met with by him amongst some rocks. Having got them repaired and afloat, with much trouble, he brought them to his Island of Santa Cruz, and a quantity of provisions being now served out to the famished soldiers, they eat thereof in such a manner that the half of them died.
Marquis, in order to avoid such a scene of distress, embarked in pursuit of new
discoveries, and during this voyage fell in with the
The Marchioness del Valle, hearing of the loss of one of the vessels on the coast, grew very apprehensive, and accordingly fitted out two ships, which sailed under the command of one Ulloa, in search of
the marquis and his squadron, with letters from his lady and
the Viceroy earnestly soliciting his return. Ulloa
was fortunate enough to light upon him, and the Marquis suffered himself to be
prevailed upon, and returned to
After the Marquis had reposed for a few months, he fitted out another expedition of two ships under the command of Francisco de Ulloa, already named by me, who sailed from the port of Natividad in the month of June, of I forget what year, with orders to examine the coast of California, and to search for Captain Hurtado who never had been heard of. Ulloa employed in this voyage about seven months, at the expiration of which he returned to Xalisco, without having effected any thing; and going for a few days on shore to repose, a soldier who bore a malice against him took an opportunity to way-lay and assassinate him, and thus ended the discoveries of the Marquis del Valle, in which he expended, as I have heard him declare, above three hundred thousand crowns.
to get some allowance from his Majesty for this loss, he determined to go to
Castille; he had also other business which called him there, such as the
dispute about his vassals, and the restitution of his property which had been
seized by Nuno de Guzman, now prisoner in Old Spain.
I will conclude this account by observing, that it appears that the Marquis
never prospered from the time of his first conquest of
The Viceroy and court of royal audience had sent out a military
force commanded by an officer named Francisco Vasquez
Coronado, who married the virtuous and fair daughter of the treasurer Estrada.
Coronado left his government of Xalisco to an officer
named Onate, and after he had been for some months in the country to which he
was sent, and which was named Celibola or the seven
cities, a Franciscan friar named Marcos de Nica,
returned from thence to Mexico to give an account of the country to the
Viceroy. He described it as consisting of fine plains full of herds of cattle,
but which were quite different in their appearance from those of Castille. The
houses he described as having two stories and stairs, and the towns as being
populous. He also represented, that as it lay near the
not omit to mention the particulars of the great armament prepared by Don Pedro
de Alvarado, in the year one thousand five hundred and thirty seven, in the
being always zealous for his Majesty’s service, as appeared by his conduit in
relations were insufficient, although the merchandize was taken
upon credit. The expence attending the ships was
nothing in comparison to that of his army, consisting of six hundred and fifty
soldiers with their officers, and a number of horses, of which latter a good
one could not be procured for lets than three hundred crowns. Alvarado sailed
some time in the year one thousand five hundred and thirty eight, for the harbour of the Purification in the
Alvarado wished to have a relation of his own, named Juan, (not the Juan de Alvarado of Chiribito) as general, and the Viceroy was anxious that an officer named Villalobos should have the command, conjointly with him. Things were in this state when Alvarado was obliged to return to his fleet at the port of Natividad; and being there, and just ready to set sail, he received a letter from Christoval de Onate who was left in command at Xalisco, in the absence of Francisco Coronado, requesting his immediate assistance to save him and the settlement from the destruction with which they were threatened, by the force of the neighbouring Indians of Cochitlan. Alvarado set off with his troops to their relief, and found them in a most desperate situation indeed. The insurgents rather decreased the violence of their attacks upon the appearance of Alvarado’s force, but still hostilities were carried on, and one day that Alvarado was pursuing some of the enemy among the rocks and mountains where they had retreated, a soldier who was on horse-back at a considerable height above him on the side of a mountain, and whole horse had lost his footing, came, horse and all, rolling down the precipice, and striking Alvarado, brought him down with them. By this accident he was so much bruited, that in consequence thereof, and of being removed too suddenly to the town of the Pacification, he was seized with fainting fits, and in the course of a few days gave up the ghost. God pardon his sins! some say that he made a
will previous to his death, but it never appeared. He was
buried with as much ceremony as could be bestowed upon his funeral,
and his remains were, as I have heard, afterwards removed to the town of
As soon as
the news of his death was known to his fleet and army, numbers discharged
themselves, and returned to their homes with what they had received. In
These circumstances I mention, because the historian Gomara attributes the unfortunate event which shortly afterwards befell her, to her having spoken blasphemously, in saying that God could do her no more injury than she had already suffered. She met with her death in the following manner. A deluge of water and mud broke from the Volcano which is at the distance of about half a league from Guatimala, and bringing with it great quantities of large stones and trees, overwhelmed the house of Donna Beatrix, who was at the time praying with her women. As to the words which Gomara ascribes to her, she
never uttered them, nor was her death a judgment of God in any
respect. But I must observe the particularities of the fate of this family.
Although Alvarado and his four brothers had served his Majesty so zealously,
not any part of his property descended to his children. D. Pedro de Alvarado
died as I have related, by an uncommon accident in Cochitlan;
his brother George died in the city of Madrid, in the year one thousand five
hundred and forty, being then soliciting his Majesty for some reward; Gomez de
Alvarado died in Peru, Gonzalo de Alvarado in Mexico or Guaxaca,
I forget which, and Juan on his voyage to the Island of Cuba. His eldest son
going with his relation Juan de Alvarado the younger to wait on his Majesty,
and solicit a recompence for his father’s services,
the ship wherein they went was lost, and neither they nor it were ever heard of
after they set sail. Don Diego, the younger son, seeing his fortunes desperate,
In about a year after the death of D Pedro de Alvarado, the Viceroy collected the best of the thirteen ships which composed his fleet, and sent them under the command of an officer named Villalobos, to make discoveries to the westward, but what the result was, I never heard. As to the expences incurred by Alvarado he never recovered any part of them, nor his family after him.
Marquis del Valle being in
was dispersed in a storm. The vessel on board which the Marquis was being stranded, he, his sons, and the other cavaliers reached the shore with very great difficulty. His servants have related, that before he pitted the vessel, he tied round his arm in a handkerchief a quantity of jewels of inestimable value, which he wore according to the custom of great lords, as we say “para no menester,” or because they are not wanting, but in the confusion of quitting the vessel by some accident they were all lost. On account of this disaster to the fleet, the council of war were of opinion to raise the siege immediately. To this council the Marquis was not summoned, but he is said to have declared, that had he been present at it he would have given his vote for the continuation of the siege, and that if it had been his fortune to have had such brave soldiers as those who first accompanied him to Mexico, he would entertain no doubt of success.
Marquis was now grown old, and he was worn down by fatigues; he was therefore
very anxious to return to
the year one thousand five hundred and nineteen, when we went with him from Cuba to New Spain, he used to tell us that he was thirty four years of age; from one thousand five hundred and nineteen, to one thousand five hundred and forty seven, is a period of twenty eight years, which makes him at the time of his death exactly sixty two years old.
legitimate children of the Marquis del Valle were, Don Martin the present
Marquis, Donna Maria before mentioned who married the Count de Luna de Leon. Donna Juana, who married Don Hernando Enriquez heir to the Marquis
of Tariffa, and Donna Catalina de Arrellano,
who died in
The motto and arms which were granted to him were well adapted to a valiant warrior. The former being in Latin I will say nothing about, because I do not understand that language. His arms were the heads of seven kings in a chain, representing Montezuma, Cacamatzin, Guatimotzin, Tulapa, Coadlavaca, and the princes of Tacuba and Cuyoacan.
I will now proceed to describe the person and disposition of the Marquis. He was of a good stature and strong built, of a rather pale
complexion, and serious countenance. His features were, if faulty,
rather too small; his eyes mild and grave. His beard was black, thin, and
scanty; his hair in the same manner. His breast and shoulders were broad, and his body very thin. He was very well limbed, and
his legs rather bowed; an excellent horseman, and dexterous in the use of arms.
He also possessed the heart and mind, which is the principal part of the
business. I have heard that when he was a lad in
was always magnificently attended and served, with four major domos or principal officers, a number of pages, and a great
quantity of plate both gold and silver. He dined heartily at mid-day, and drank
a glass of wine mixed with water, of about half a pint,
He was not nice in his food, nor expensive, except do particular occasions
where he saw the propriety of it. He was very affable with all his captains and
soldiers, especially those who accompanied him in his firm expedition from
rhetorician; very devout to our Holy Virgin, and his advocates St. Peter, St. Jago, and St. John the Baptist in particular; and charitable to the poor. When he swore he used to say, “by my conscience!” and when he was angry with any of us, his friends, he would say, “oh! may you repent it.” When he was very angry, the veins in his throat and forehead used to swell, and when in great wrath, he would not utter a syllable to any one. He was very patient under insults or injuries; for some of the soldiers were at times very rude and abusive with him; but he never resented their conduct, although he had often great reason to do so. In such cases he used only to say, “be silent,” or, “go away in God’s name and take care not to repeat this conduct, or I will have you punished.” He was very determined and headstrong in all business of war, not attending to any remonstrances on account of danger; an instance of which he shewed in the attack of those fortresses called the rocks of the Marquis; which he forced us to scale, contrary to our opinions, and where neither courage, counsel, or wisdom, could give any rational hope of success. Another instance, was given by him of his obstinacy in regard to the expedition against De Oli. I repeatedly advised him to go by the mountains; but he persisted in adhering to the coast, whereas if he had gone in the direction that I proposed he would have found towns the whole way, of which the following route is a proof; Guacacualco, the high road to Chiapa, from that to Guatimala, and from thence to Naco. Where we had to erect a fortress, Cortes was the hardest labourer in the trenches; when we were going into battle, he was as forward as any.
Cortes was very fond of play, both at cards and dice, and while playing he was very affable and good humoured. He used frequently at such times, those cant expressions which persons who game are accustomed to do. In military service he practised the most strict attention to discipline, constantly going the rounds in person during the night, visiting the quarters of the soldiers, and severely reprehending those whom he found without their armour and appointments, and
not ready to turn out; repeating to them the proverb, that
“it is a bad sheep which cannot carry its own wool.” On our expedition to Higueras I perceived that he had acquired a habit which I
had never before observed in him, and it was this; after eating, if he did not
get his siesta or sleep, his stomach was affected, and he fell sick. For this
reason, when on the journey, let the rain be ever so heavy, or the sun ever so
hot, he always reposed for a short time after his repast, a carpet or cloak
being spread under a tree, on which he lay down, and having slept a short time
he mounted his horse and proceeded on his journey. When we were engaged in the
wars during the conquest of