FIG. 44B.—Ancient Briton coin with Corn Sun-Cross, Andrew's X Cross, Sun-horse, etc.

(After Poste.)














Disclosing Catti, "Hitt-ite" or Gothic Origin of "Celtic"

or Runic Cross, Fiery Cross, Red Cross of St. George,

Swastika and "Spectacles," Crosses on Early

Briton Coins, etc.; introduction of True

Cross into Christianity by the Goths;

and ancient "Brito-Gothic"

Hymns to the Sun.



"Through storm and fire and gloom.

I see it stand,

Firm, broad and tall,


The Celtic Cross that marks our Fatherland,

Amid them all!

Druids and Danes and Saxons vainly rage


Around its base,

It standeth shock on shock, and age on age,

Star of our scatter'd race!"

{T. Darcy McGee in Lyra Celtica, ed. E. A. Sharpe, 366.}



STILL further striking new evidence of the Phśnician origin of the Britons and Scots, properly so-called, and of their Civilization and pre-Christian Religion of the Cross, and of its effect upon the British form of Christianity is now discovered through the Sun Cross on the Phśnician monument at Newton, and on so many of the other pre-Christian monuments in Britain, and on the Early Briton pre-Roman Catti Coins, and in the Runic or so-called "Celtic" Cross, the Fiery Cross, the Red Cross of St. George, [p. 290] the crosses of the Union Jack and associated Crosses on the Scandinavian ensigns.


The name "Cross" is now discovered to be derived from the Sumerian (i.e. Early Phśnician) word Garza, which is defined as "Sceptre or Staff of the Sun-God," and also "Sceptre of the King." {Br. 5644 and 5647.} And its word-sign is pictured by the two-barred Cross, or battle-axe (Khat the root of Khat-ti or Hittite, see Fig. 46 b) springing from the rayed Sun (Fig. 46 g'). In its simpler form it is the Cross of the Trojan amulets (Fig. 31 a, p. 238, and Fig. 46 h & t); and it survives to the present day in practically its original form in the "Mound" symbol of sovereignty (Fig. 47 H) borne in the hand of kings in the modern Aryanized world.


The Sun Cross, engraved by our Phśnician Cassi, king of the Scots, on his votive pillar at Newton to the Sun-god Bil, and engraved on many other pre-Christian monuments (see Fig. 47), and stamped upon many Early Briton coins (Fig. 3, etc.), now supplies us for the first time with the key to the manner in which the True Cross or "Fiery Cross" emblem of Universal Victory of the Sun-God Bil, which is figured so freely upon Hittite and Sumerian sacred seals from the fourth millennium B.C. onwards, was substituted in Christianity by the Goths for the Crucifix of Christ—which Crucifix was of quite a different shape from the True Cross or Sun Cross, now used in modern Christianity.


The earliest form of the True Cross or Sun Cross was, I find, the shape +,


{This is given as the first sign in the Ogam inscription on the Newton Stone, as transcribed by Mr. Brash (B.O.I., 361); and a personal examination of the stone supports the view that it was not merely a vertical stroke but bore a horizontal "stem" line, though the latter is now somewhat scaled off. In any case the long single-stroke Ogam sign is represented as + in the Ogam alphabet; and see Fig. 46 a.}


wherein the arms are of equal length—the so-called "Greek Cross" and "Red Cross of St. George," and "The Short Cross" of numismatists. It occurs in this form as the symbol for the Sun and its God in the sacred seals of the Hitto-Sumerians from the fifth millennium B.C. downwards; {See illustrations in W.S.C., W.S.M. and H.H.S.} and it thus becomes evident why it is called "The Red Cross of St. George of Cappadocia," as it was "The Fire Cross" of the Hittites, whose chief centre was Cappadocia. It was very freely used also, as we have seen (Fig. 12, p. 49 and Fig. 46), by the Aryan "Cassi" Dynasty of Babylonia from about 1800 to 1100 B.C., decorated by borderlines as their emblem for the Sun and its God. It was ordinarily called "The Wooden Bar or "M," that is, literally, in English, "The Bar or Mace (in sense of a sceptre)," and thus discloses incidentally the Sumerian origin of those two English words; and it is figured as a sceptre in the hand of the Sun God in early Sumerian sacred seals. It was also called Pir with meaning of "Fire," {Br. 1724.} thus disclosing the Sumerian origin of our English words "Fire" and "Pyre," Gothic, Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, and Old English Fyr "Fire" and the Greek "Pyr."


This form of the True Cross, which occurs on so many pre-Christian monuments in Britain, {See numerous examples figured in S.S.S. for Scotland and W.L.W. for Wales. There is no corresponding work for England.} is called by modern ecclesiastic writers "The Greek Cross," merely because it was adopted by the Greek Christian Church about the fifth century A.D. as the form of the Christian emblem for their converts in the old Gothic region of Byzantium, who had been using this Gothic Cross as their sacred emblem from time immemorial. And it is noteworthy that the Greek Church, as well as the crusaders later, continued to use this cross in its old original Catti or Gothic sense, as a simple symbol of Divine Victory and not as a crucifix, never representing any body thereon; but, on the contrary, they usually colour it red, its original colour, as the red or fiery Cross of Fire.


The origin of this earliest form of the True Cross, I find, was the crossing of the twin tinder sticks used for producing by their friction the sacred fire, symbolizing the Sun's Fire. And this same process, which is still used for fire-production by primitive tribes in India, America, etc., at the present day (see Fig. 45), was in use in Early Britain down to the Middle Ages in the hands of St. Kentigern and others, as we have seen, for generating the sacred fire. The Vedic hymns of the ancient Indo-Aryans contain numerous references and directions for the production of the Sacred Fire in this way; and significantly it is the Barats who are chiefly referred to as Producing the Sacred Fire with twin fire-sticks, and especially their "Able Panch" or Phśnician clan of Priest-kings,


[Thus: "The Bārats—Srava the divine (and) Vāta the divine—

Have dextrously rubbed to Life effectual Fire:

O God of Fire, look forth with brimming riches,

Bear us each day our daily bread!"] {R.V., 3, 23, 2.}


and it is these twin fire-sticks which, we have seen, were mystically used to form the sacred Ogam script of the Irish Scots and of the Newton Stone (Fig. 7, p. 30).



FIG. 45.—Twin Fire-sticks crossed in Fire-production,

as used in modern India.

(After Hough).

{W. Hough, Methods of Fire-making. Rept. U.S. Nat. Museum, Boston, 1890-95.}


Note the sticks are bamboo. The lower section shows how the heat of

the sawing ignites the falling sawdust as tinder.

The Cross was thus freely used as the symbol of Divine Victory of the Sun on the earliest Sumerian (or Early Aryan) sacred seals from about 4000 B.C., and continued so to be used by the Hittites, Phśnicians, Kassis, Trojans, Goths and Ancient Britons, and worn as an amulet down through the ages into the Christian period. It was figured both in its simple form, and also decorated and ornamented in various ways like a jewel, as seen in the accompanying Figs. 46 and 47. The former Fig. gives the forms of the Cross as found on Sumerian, Hittite, Phśnician, Kassi and Trojan seals, inscriptions, vases and amulets; whilst Fig. 47 shows the identical Hitto-Sumerian and Phśnician conventional variations in the form of the Cross as found on the Prehistoric and pre-Christian monuments and Pre-Roman coins of Ancient Britain.


This simple equilateral form of the Sun Cross of Divine Victory, was sometimes ornamented by the Catti (or Hittites) and Sumerians by doubling its borders, so as to superimpose one or more crosses inside each other, as in the "Cassi" Cross (see Figs. 12, 46), and by decorating it with jewels or fruits (Fig. 46) and by broadening its free ends to form what is now called "The Maltese" Cross, which is found on the ancient Sumerian sacred seals and as amulets on the necklaces of the priest-kings in Babylonia, etc. (Fig. 46, e, E). {Bonomi, Nineveh, 333, etc. See W.S.C. for numerous other examples.} And it is a variety of this amulet or necklace form, with a handle at the top, or pierced with a hole above for stringing on a necklace or rosary, which has hitherto been called "The Phśnician" or "Egyptian" or Crux ansata, or "Key of Life-to-come" (Fig. z', S); whilst the other forms of crosses of the St. George type, though found on the same old Phśnician sites have been arbitrarily deemed non-Phśnician. But this so-called "Phśnician" or "Egyptian" Cross is not uncommonly figured on Hittite sacred seals as a symbol of the Sun-god, {Fig. 40, p. 250. W.S.C., 808-9, etc., etc.} the reason being that the Phśnicians, as we have so repeatedly seen, were also Khatti, Catti, "Hatti" or "Hitt-ites" themselves.


Another common form of this simple Sun Cross is the Swastika, which we have, carved, in the centre of the Phśnician votive pillar to Bel at Newton. This is formed from the simple "St. George's Cross" by adding to its free ends a bent foot, pointing in the direction of the Sun's apparent movement across the heavens, i.e., towards the right hand and thus forming the "Swastika" or what I call


Fig. 46 [for graphic see GRAPHICS FOLIO]:

{References to Hitto-Sumerian Crosses in Fig. 46. Abbreviations:

C=C.M.C.; Co=C.S.H.; D=D.C.O.; H=H.H.S.; S=S.I.; W=W.S.C.; WM=W.S.M.

a  Sumer sign for Sun-god Bil (Br., 1802, 1778) or Fire-god with word-value Bar, also Pir or "Fire" (Br., 1724) and defined as "flame, fire, wood, twin" (Br., 1810, 1756, 1811, and B.B.W., pp. 41-3), i.e., Twin fire-sticks. On seals W, 14, 539, etc., D(L), Pl. 41, 5 and 8; D(B) 24, 68, etc.

a'  Oriented or X Cross, W, 368, 488, etc.; D(L), Pl. 13, 18; 24, 15, 58, 26, etc.; Co, 223-6, etc. a2  Other form of same W, 488.


b  Sumer sign for "Sceptre" also = "Shining and Sun-god of Street" (Br., 5573, 5617 and B.B.W., p. 131, No. 48). On seals W, 215, 1205. b'  Same oriented W, 490, and a three-barred W, 273. c-d, Fruit Crosses (Gurin), Br., 5903-5; W. 455, etc. d', W, 24.

e  W, 700, 755, 1071, etc.; 538.

f  W, 532, etc., 1293, and Saltire (X), W, 559.

g  W, 41a, etc. g' Rayed Cross, very common, W, 37a, etc.

g2  W, 23, 24, 542, 620, etc. h W, 139b, 223, 244, etc.

i  W, 126, 270, 282-3, etc. i' "Celtic," W 454a, etc.

j  W, 274, 319, 339, etc. h Common W, 226, 324, etc.

k  W, 324 850, 946. etc. l W, 36, etc.

l' and l2, Swastikas, W, 1307, Circular-saw type, 494, 496, 592, etc. 215, etc.; often 8-toothed.

m  Cuneiform sign for god Bil (Br., 1478, 1497) quadrupled as Cross and defined "God and Heaven" (C.I.W.A., 2, Pl. 48, 30); cp. W, 54. On Mycena gold buttons, S.M., Nos. 405, 407, 412.

n  W, 869, 1282, H, 45. W, 329, 340, 448, Co. 39.

o  In Hittite inscripts. e.g. Marash Lion, also H.C., pl. A. 11a, etc.; W, 829, and H, 44, Pl. 2.

p  In Hittite inscripts frequent. H.C., Pl. A, ll. 4 and 6; W, 24, etc.

q  W, 913. H.C., 27. H, 35, 44. Co., Co for X see a'.

r  W, frequent Co, 152, 158. r' D, Pl. 128, and oriented, Pl. 14, 5-7, 98, 9b; H, 127-131, 216; Co., 57, 75; 354, 358.

s  W, 850, etc. WM, 237, 798; Co., 20, etc., etc. H, 215.

t  W, 839, etc. C, 158, from Boghaz Koi, Co., 11, 17, etc.

t'  Co., 95, 106. u W, 946, etc. v W, 831, etc. Curved Swastika, W, 798, 928; Rosette, W, 542, 796, 868, etc., S.I. 309;
WM, 179, 192, etc.; H, 54, 108 218; Co, 276-280, etc.; Pellet Cross, W, 768. w Multiple limbed Swastika, H, 130. SL, 1915.

x  Key Swastika on priest's dress, see Fig. 62 and G.L.H., Pl. 56-7; and on bronze stag, C, Pl. 24, 12.

y  D(L)pl. 59. 1; 106, 1a, W. 832.

z  C, Pl. 6, 1, 2, 4, etc.; H, Fig. 10 and Nos. 131, 216.

z'  Handled Cross (Arkh) common on Hittite seals, W, 808, etc.

A  Fig. 12; and W, 46, 543, etc., 1220. A' W, 539; in Hittite D(B), 297; and oriented CS, 12, 6. B W, 525-6, etc., 537, etc.

C  Ib., 535, etc.; on Hittite pottery, C, Pl. 11. D W, 41, 514, etc.

E  W, 1280-81 and p. 394, as amulet on neck of priest kings.

F  Ib., 532. G SI, 1871, 1976. CC. 121, pl. 12, 10. 11: W. 1197-8.

G'  S.I. 1452, 1946, 1993. cp. Egypt. hieroglyph for "East" or Orient. H Fig. 31, p. 238. S.I ., 1954. H' Ib., 1432.

H2 Ib., 1824, 1829, etc. I Ib., 1256, 1879.


J  Very common, S.I., 1849, etc. J' Ib., 1915.

K  Ib., 1977. L Ib., 1914. L' Ib., 1858, 1864, 1871-6, etc.

M  Ib. 1901, 1920. N Curved Swastika Ib., 230, 1833, 1991, etc.

O  Ib. 1837; in Hittite seals, W. 215, 494, etc., WM, 130, and cp. Briton Ogam, Fig. 5 B. P C.C. pl. 121.


Q  G.H. Figs. 78 and 169 and pp. 37, 67. Crossed wood coloured red with sense of "fitted" and "devouring flame."


R  Red-painted Cross of 2 bars wood, ib. Fig. 67 and p. 61. Its later form resembles "brazier" sign Akh for "Fire," cp. G.H., 42.


S  Handled Cross or Ankh as "Key of Life."


T  W, 832. U D(L), 97, 10, and cp. P.A.P., 2, 240.}



[p. 295]

Fig. 47 [for graphic see GRAPHICS FOLIO]:


{References to Ancient Briton Crosses of Bitto-Sumerian and Trojan type in Fig. 47. Abbreviations: B=B.C.; C=C.N.G.; E=E.C.B.; S=S.S.S.; W=W.L.W.


A  Common especially in Ogam inscripts. B.O.I. and S.I., 29, etc.; and W, 3, 4, etc.; E, Pl. A, 6, B, 2, 14, etc. Oriented X common, see Fig. 54, p. 317.


B  S.I., 138 ; C, 34; Oriented, S.I., 129, 57-8, etc.; W, 83, 84; E Pl. B, 11, 15, C, 13, etc. C S.I., 2, 9, 74, 120; 124; W, 39, 52, 66; with "Lock of Horus," S, 2, 71, Illust. Pl. 26, 35; W, 79. D S., 2, 52, 74; W, 22, 52. E, S, 2, 35, etc., 62, 84, 93; W, 13, 22; S, 2, 74, 82, 114; W, 22, 29, 61, etc. F W, 101, long 89.


G  Common S, 2, beaded W, 38. H "The Mound," E, Pl. 1, 1, 2, 7, etc., C, 88, and cp. Sumer-Hittite, Fig. 46, h, t', stemmed Carsi, W, 48. I S, 2 Illust. 31, 33; wheeled, W, 80, 81.

J  S, 2 Illust. 31, 32; W, 21, barbed, 48.

K  S, 2, 105; W, 95. K' S, 2, 124. L S, 2, 53, Illust. 26(4); W, 83, modified, S, 22.

M  S, 2, 73-4, 77, 122; W, 53, 4; 58-9. N E, 3, 5 and F, 6.

O  W 73; E Pl. 3, 5, etc. P S, 2, 29, 35; W, 58, 74.


P'  W, 88b, Oriented, W 37(2); 90, S, 2, 101; C, Fig. 84; and as grain crop E, Pl. B, 11, C, 9, etc.

Q  S, 1, 42; 2, 113; W, 61(6) long, 48, 57b. R see Fig. 12A and S, 2 Illust. 27(29); W, 14 (2). S Common on coins, E, Pl. A, 1, 2, etc. and on monumts., S and W, 38(2), 97(1). T Key pattern Swastika, S common, Vol. I, 35, 52, 72, etc. Vol. II, 72, 74, etc.; W, 38(3), 62, 84, modified, 57, etc.; B, 396(4). T' W, 25, 39, etc., E, 3, 9, 12, etc.

U  S, 2, 72. V S, 2, 74. V' S, 2, 15, 103; W, 58, 79, 83.


V'  S, 74, etc., W, 23, 61, etc.


W  Frequent S.; C, 88, W, 61, etc., E, Pl. A, 6, B, 2; C, 4; 1, 1, etc.


X  C, 36, Newton Stone and common.

Y  E, Pl. B, 11, 15, D, 11, 13, etc. Z E, Pl. B, 10, D, 7, E, 1, etc., etc.

A'  E, Pl. B, 11, 8, 11, etc.; W, 14, 37, 39, 90. B' W, 61 and cp. 14, etc. C' W, 73. D' Fig. 25A, p. 187.


E'  S, 60, from Foulis Western near Crieff, Perthshire, with Key Swastikas on limbs of Hittite type, and curved Swastikas on each boss.

F2 S, 129, No. 11 Cross from Drainie Elgin and not infrequent S, 35, 45, 19, 57, etc. G' S, 2, 121 Illust. 27(29); W, 29, 80.


H'  S, 35, from Farr in Sutherland with key Swastikas on limbs and curved on centre boss, and many others in S.


H2  S, 27, etc.; W, 83.


H3  Grain Cross E, 5, 8, etc., and Stukeley, Pl. 2, 5, etc.


I'  Common "Celtic", W, 57, 61, etc.

J'  S, 27, from Shandwick in Ross. Each boss bears curved Swastika, and many others in S. J2 E, 3, 5. J3 E, 1, 6.

K2  Boss of J' with Swastika ⅓ actual size, cp. Hittite and Trojan. V.N. K3 S, 123, and cp. 118; W, 70, 90, etc., Fig. 49.

L'  E, 3, 6. N' E, 1, 6.}



the "Revolving Cross." This discloses for the first time the real origin and meaning of the Swastika Cross and its feet, {See the current theories summarized by D'Alviella Migration of Symbols, 1894, 32, etc. And compare my Buddhism of Tibet, 1895, 30, 287, 389.} and its talismanic usage for good luck. This Swastika form of the Sun Cross occurs on early Hittite and Sumerian seals and sculptures and is very frequent in the ruins of Troy (see Fig. J J')—where it is very frequent on whorls, used especially as amulets for the dead, with the feet reversed as the Resurrecting Cross. It is found widely in India of the Barats and in most places to which the Phśnicians penetrated. Thus it is found with other solar Phśnician symbolism in Peru amidst the massive ruins of the dead Inca civilization which the Phśnicians had established there, and of which vestiges survive in the solar cult of the modern Indians there. What is of immediate importance is that it occurs on the Brito-Phśnician Part-olon's monument to the Sun-god at Newton, and on many other pre-Christian monuments in Britain (see Figs. 5 A and 47) and on early Briton coins (Figs. later).


The simple equal-limbed cross was also sometimes figured inside the circle of the Sun's disc (Fig. i', k, etc.), and sometimes intermediate rays were added between the arms to form a halo of glory (Fig. h-1, etc.). This now discloses the Catti or "Hittite" origin of the "Wheeled" Crosses of pre-Christian Britain known as the "Runic Cross," or more commonly called "The Celtic Cross." This name of "Celtic" has been lately given to it because it was largely adopted by Columba and Kentigern in their missions to the Picts and "Celts" of Scotland, Wales and Cornwall, and is supposed to have been invented by "Celts." On the contrary, it is now seen to have been imported by the Catti Phśnician Barats or Britons as part of their Sun-cult; and the scenes sculptured on these ancient "wheeled," as well as free-limbed, prehistoric Crosses in Britain are non-Christian, and essentially identical, I find, with those graven on the ancient Hittite and Sumerian seals and other monuments of the Sun-cult from about 4000 to 1000 B.C., and were erected on pedestals for adoration as high crosses (Fig. 46, i', n, u, z).

This equal-limbed Cross, when used as a sacred sceptre in the hands of the Sun-god or his priest-king (or in the hands of Barati, see Fig. 16, p. 57), or when erected for adoration, was elongated by the addition of a stem or pedestal—this is seen in the most archaic Sumerian seals of the fifth millennium B.C., and also found in the ruins of ancient Troy, where sometimes this elongated Cross is pictured springing from the rayed Sun (see Fig. 46, H). This now discloses the origin of the common form of the True Cross in Christianity now current in Western Europe and usually called "The Roman or Latin Cross" and adopted for the Crucifix of Christ, which, however, we shall see was of quite a different shape.


Now arises the question of the relationship of these long antecedent pre-Christian sacred Aryan Sun-Crosses to the "True" Cross in Christianity, where it is now used as the Crucifix. When we examine the history of the Cross and Crucifix in Christianity, what do we find?


The Crucifix of Christ was of quite a different shape from the True Cross, which, indeed, never appears to have been used as a crucifix in ancient times. The historical Crucifix of Christ is figured and described in Early Christianity as of the shape of a T, {F.C.A., 23, 25. The "Cross" of the Jews mentioned in Ezekiel 9, 4-6, is called "the T Cross," and this is the form of the Cross used by Jews as a charm against snake-bite, and by others against erysipelas or "St. Anthony's Fire."} the so-called "St. Anthony's Cross"; and it occurs extremely rarely in Early Christianity,


{For Christ's Crucifix as T-shaped cross, see second-century jewel figured by Farrar (F.C.A., 48); and on third-century tomb of Irene in Callixtine cemetery (F.C.A., 25). It is also thus figured on Early Christian tombs in Britain, ed. S.S.S., 1 pl. 28, in upper register of face of Nigg Cross, Ross-shire (along with old solar symbols) and in S.S.S., 2, Pl. 52, at Kirkapoll, Argyle.}


because the crucifix was not a recognized Christian symbol of the Early Christians. Thus no mention whatever is made of it, or of any cross, by St. Clement of Alexandria (d. 211 A.D.) in specifying the emblems which Christians should wear. {Clement Pedagogus, 3, 11, 59 and F.C.A., 7.} The reason for this omission is generally admitted by our ecclesiastical writers to be that the Early Christians were ashamed of the Crucifix on account of it being a malefactor's emblem—"the accursed tree" of the Hebrews, and the infelix lignum or "unhappy wood" of the Romans. {F.C.A., 20.}


Not even in the time of Constantine (d. 337 A.D.), the great propagator of Christianity (and born in York, it is traditionally reported, of a British mother), was the True Cross known in that faith—Constantine's sacred emblem for Christ and Christianity was merely a monogram of the first two Greek letters of Christ's name, XP, which had no transverse arms, nor any suggestion of a rectangular cross. Yet, on the other hand significantly, Constantine before his Profession of Christianity in 312 A.D. issued coins (some of them supposedly minted at London) stamped with the Cross, as the pagan emblem of the Sun, and associated with a figure of the rayed Sun-god, and eight-rayed Sun, and the Pagan title "To the Comrade of the Invincible Sun" (Soli Invicto Comiti). {F. W. Madden, N.C., 1877, 246-8, etc., 292.} On one of the coins bearing this legend the Sun-god is represented standing and crowning Constantine. {Ib., 253.} And it was obviously as a Sun-worshipper that Constantine erected at Constantinople the famous colossal image of the Sun-god brought from Troy. {"Ilium in Phrygia," ib. 249. This appears to be Troy or Ilium. Old Phrygia formerly extended up to the Hellespont.} The Cross which he stamped on his early coins was the pagan Hitto-Sumerian form of Sun-Cross e in Fig. 46, that is to say, the "Greek" Cross. {Figures of these coins by Madden loc. cit., Plate II, 1 and 2.} That pagan title of "Comrade of the Invincible Sun" was also used by the Roman emperor of the East, Licinius, presumably before Constantine; {Ib., 247.} and he was in especially close relations with the Eastern Goths, who used this Cross from time immemorial, and from whom he presumably adopted it. Yet when Constantine became a Christian, on giving up Sun-worship, he also gave up using the Cross, and used instead as his exclusive symbol of Christianity a device which had not the form of the Cross at all, as the latter was the exclusive symbol of Sun-worship.

The True Cross does not seem to have been certainly found in Christianity as a Christian emblem before 451 A.D.;


{This is the statement of Farrar (F.C.A., 26). But he mentions a Cross, presumably a "Greek" one, reputed on a tomb of a Christian in 370 A.D., of which no particulars are given nor evidence for the date, citing as his authority Boldetti; also a "Greek" Cross on the tomb of Ruffini, who was especially associated with the "Arian" Goths and who died about 410 A.D. Sir F. Petrie, in an elaborate review of Early Christian Crosses (Ancient Egypt, 1916, 104) cites a Cross on a coin of the Roman emperor Gratian in 380 A.D.; but Gratian was not a Christian. The Romans were addicted to putting symbols on their coins which were current amongst their subjects and the Cross was a common Gothic symbol. Professor Petrie gives several slightly earlier dates, though some of these require revision; e.g., Galla Placidia on p. 104 is stated to have died 420, whereas the usually accepted date is 450 (H. Bradley, Goths, 105) or 451; but all of the earlier dates fall subsequent to the period of conversion of the Visi-Goths by Ulfilas. The ornate crosses of the Arian Goths at Ravenna about 510 A.D. (Petrie loc. cit. 107), decorated with smaller wheeled Crosses, and the limbs ending in discs, as well as most of the other forms figured by Petrie, disclose their clear line of descent from the Hitto-Sumerian and Kassi types (see Fig. 46, d, etc., B-F, etc.). The Cross used by the Early Christian Egyptians as a symbol and not a crucifix, with loop at its top (see Fig. 47, c) and which is called "The Lock of Horus," i.e., The Sun-god, also thereby associates this Cross with the Sun; and it occurs on early British monuments (Fig. 47 C).}


and then significantly it appears on the tomb of Galla Placidia, the widow of the Gothic Christian emperor Atawulf, brother-in-law and successor of Alaric, the famous and magnanimous Gothic Christian emperor. This tomb with its Cross of the Hittite form (see Fig. 46, o) and a similar one on the tomb of her son (d. 455 A.D.), is at Ravenna in the Northern Adriatic, a home of Early Byzantine or Gothic art in Italy and the capital of the Roman empire of the Goths. From this time onwards the True Cross comes more and more into general use as the symbol of Christ and Christianity; but not yet as a substitute for the Crucifix. It is now found in use—both in the elongated form, as on this Ravenna tomb, and with the equal arms, as found in the pre-Christian monuments and coins of Early Britain—as the sceptre and symbol of Divine victory, as it was in the Sun-cult; but no body is ever figured impaled or otherwise upon it.


The obvious reason and motive for this importation into Christianity in the fifth century A.D. of the old Aryan Sun-Cross symbol of Victory of the One God of the Universe of the Khatti, Getć or Goths now becomes evident. The "Western" (properly "Eastern" Goths) were early converted to Christianity, about 340 A.D., by their priest-prince, Bishop Ulfilas, whose translation for his kinsmen of the New Testament Gospels into Gothic remains one of the earliest versions of the gospels in any language. The Goths naturally transferred to their new form of religion, Christianity, which had so much in common with their old ancestral monotheistic faith, the most sacred symbol of that ancestral faith, The True Cross, which we have seen was freely figured as such, not only by the Sumerian Babylonian and Hittite or Catti Sun-worshippers, but also by their kinsmen, the Catti Goths of Britain on their coins of the pre-Christian period.


But the True Cross of Victory thus introduced by the Goths into Christianity as a symbol of Christ was not used as a substitute for the Crucifix until many centuries later. It was, for several centuries, used merely as the simple Cross, as the Solar symbol of Victory by itself, without any body fixed on it; and even when, in the eighth century, Christ was figured on it, even then it was not the Crucified Christ. "Not until the eighth century is Christ represented on the Cross to the public eye; but even then it is a Christ free, with eyes open, with arms unbound; living, not dead; majestic, not abject; with no mortal agony on His divine eternal features." {F.C.A., 401.} It thus was not used as a crucifix, but still as the Sun-Cross of Victory, placed behind Him as a halo of glory, as in the fashion of the old Sumer-Babylonian and Medo-Persian Sun-worshippers in representing the Sun-god in human form. For the Christian artists had not yet dared to associate this pure and glorious symbol of the Living Sun-god with blood or Death. {But see next footnote; and on "reverent dread" of representing Christ on the Cross in the seventh century see F.A.C., 400.}


Not until the tenth century was Christ represented to the public eye on The True Cross as a Crucifix, and impaled thereon, blood-splashed, in agony and death,


{F.C.A., 402. But as early as 586 A.D. a Syrian monk in Mesopotamia in an illustrated convent manual of the Gospels, now in the Florence Library, painted the Dead Christ on the Cross as a crucifix, though it remained unique and not known to the public. The belief held by some that a crucifix in form of the Latin Cross, carved on a cornelian and another on ivory date as early as the fifth century (Garrucci, Diss. Arch., 27) is not accepted by Farrar as authentic.}


in the form now familiar. From this very late date the True Cross then began, for the first time, to be called, or rather miscalled, in modern Christianity, "The Crucifix," and to be represented as such in Christian art. And the glorious ancient Aryan "pagan" tradition of the True Cross as the symbol of Divine Victory and Devil-banishing was then transferred to this new form of "Crucifix," now that it had been given the form of the sacred old Aryan Sun Cross.


This transference to Christ's Crucifix of the form and glorious tradition of the ancient Aryan Sun-Cross of the Hittites or Goths is thus one of the great positive contributions made by the Goths to Christianity. Amongst their other great contributions to Christianity is " Gothic " architecture—the noblest of all forms of religious styles of building—and ancient semi-pointed arches of quasi-Gothic type are still seen in the ruins of Hittite or Catti buildings dating back to at least the second millennium B.C. The Gothic translation of the New Testament, also by prince Ulfilas, one of the earliest of the extant versions of the Christian Scripture, is a chief basis of our "English" translation of the Gospels. It was the Goths also, in the purity of their ancestral Monotheist idea of God, who successfully resisted the introduction of the Mother-Son cult by the Romish and Alexandrine Church into their Christianity in Nestorian Asia Minor and Byzantium, and thence also in Gothic Britain and North-western Europe.


It was this same steadfast Gothic Monotheism, inherited from the Aryan Gothic originators of the idea of The One God, through our own "pagan" ancestral Gothic Early Britons and their descendants, which has clearly kept British and Scandinavian Christianity free from the taint of the aboriginal Chaldee Mother-Son cult and the host of polytheist saints which disfigures most of the continental forms of Christianity. It is also this ancestral Gothic Monotheism which now explains for the first time the origin of the "Arianism" of the Goths—the lofty and refined philosophical Gothic conception of Monotheism, which our modern ecclesiastic and ethical writers are totally at a loss to account for amongst such a "rude untutored barbarous" pagan people, as they have hitherto supposed the Goths to be, notwithstanding the noble pictures left by contemporary Roman writers of the admirable character and personality of Alaric and other historical Gothic kings. But this "Arianism" of the Goths is now seen to be the natural and logical outcome of the purity of the Gothic idea of Monotheism, as inherited from their ancestral "pagan" cult of the Father-god and his Sun-Cross of the Aryans.


This Sun-Fire Cross also now discloses the Gothic or Phśnician Catti origin of "The Fiery Cross," familiar to readers of Scott's semi-historical romances, as carried by the Scottish clans through the glens in summoning the clans to a holy war. It is now seen to be a vestige of the ancient sacred Red Fire Cross of the Catti or Xatti or "Scot" Sun-worshippers.


The "Red Cross of St. George" of Cappadocia and England also is seen to be the original form of the Cappadocian Hittite or Gothic Fiery Red Cross of the Sun, carried erect as the sceptre or standard of divine Universal Victory. The ecclesiastical attempts at explaining the origin of St. George with his Red Cross and his transference from Cappadocia as patron saint to England, in common with Asia Minor, Syria-Phśnicia, Russia, Portugal and Aragon, form one of the paradoxes of Church history. It affords another illustration of the manner in which the Early Christian Fathers, for proselytizing purposes, introduced into the bosom of the Catholic Church "pagan" deities in the guise of Christian saints.


All the ecclesiastic legends of St. George locate him in Cappadocia; but the personality of the Christian saint of that name is so shadowy as to be transparently non-historical. There are two supposed Christian St. Georges, one a disreputable bishop of that name of Cappadocia and Alexandria, who was martyred by a mob about 362 A.D.; while a third, more or less mythical, is known only by two medieval references and said to have been martyred about 255 A.D. {B.L.S., April, 308.} The great Gibbon, who does not recognize either of the latter, dismisses the former, saying: "The infamous George [p. 305] of Cappadocia has been transformed into the renowned St. George of England, the patron of arms, of chivalry and of the garter." {G.D.F., 2, c, 23.} And a recent authority, in his account of this saint, concludes that the traditional "Acts" of St. George "are simply an adaptation of a heathen myth of a solar god to a Christian saint." {B.L.S., April, 301.} But neither Gibbon nor anyone else hitherto appears to have found any evidence for the origin of St. George and his Red Cross with the Dragon legend, nor as to how St. George and his Red Cross came to be connected with England.


The name "George" is usually derived from the Greek Geōrgos, "a husbandman," from Geōrgia, "fields." The latter is now seen to be obviously derived from the Sumerian Kur or Kuur-ki, "Land," which was the title applied by the Sumerians to Cappadocia-Cilicia, as "The Land" of the Hittites or Goths. This Kur is the source of "Suria," the name recorded by Herodotus for Cappadocia, {Herodotus 1, 6, and 72, etc.} the inhabitants of which he calls "Suri-oi," i.e., the "White Syrians," or Hittites, of Strabo, the people who, we have seen, were the founders of Agriculture. "George" or "Georgos" thus appears originally to have designated a Hittite of Kur-ki or Cappadocia—K, G, and S being dialectically interchangeable. "Guur" or "Geur" is also the ideograph value of a word-sign for The Father-god Bel, which has the meaning of "The Father Protector"; {Br. 1140-1, 1146. Meissner 647.} and in the Sumerain seals it is Father Bel or Geur who slays the Dragon. (see Fig. 55), though in the later Babylonian legend this achievement is credited to his son, the so-called "Younger Bel" (Mar-duk or Taśia). Thus Bel as Geur, the Dragon-slayer and protector of the Hittite Cappadocia, is the original of St. George.


In the early Sumerian, Hittite and Babylonian seals and sculptures, the figure of the Sun-god Bel slaying the winged Dragon is very frequent,


{See W.S.C., Figs. 127-135b, etc. The rayed Sun is usually figured near the god, or over the dragon, and in 129 and 132 the god appears to wield a Cross. The scene of Bel overcoming the Winged Dragon is ever more common in Assyrian sacred seals, e.g., W.S.C., Figs. 563-646.}


and we have seen that the Sun Cross was a recognized Devil-banishing weapon and talisman. In Egypt, also, long before the Christian era, there are numerous effigies of the Sun-god Horus (i.e., the Sumerian Śur, Sanskrit "Sura," Hindi "Suraj," Persian "Hoyu," "The Sun,") {Detailed proofs of this identity in my Aryan Origins.} as a warrior and sometimes on horseback slaying the Dragon represented locally as a crocodile, and the Horns Sun-cult is usually stated to have been introduced into Egypt by Menes, who, I find, was a Hitto-Phśnician. Moreover, the pre-Christian spring festival of the pagan Sun-god as "Mithra" was celebrated on St. George's Day, April 23rd, under which the Sun-god bore the title of "Commander of the Fields," {Von Gutschmid, Ber. der Such Ges., 1861 (13), 194, etc.; and H. Hulst, St. George of Cappadocia, 1909, 3.} and "George" is cognate with the Greek Geōrgia, "Fields," and Geōrgos, "a Husbandman," and the Hitto-Aryans were, as we have seen, the founders of husbandry, and worshippers of Bel or Geur.


This Hitto-Sumerian origin for "St. George of Cappadocia" and his Red Cross and Dragon legend now explains his introduction into England by the Catti (or "Hitt-ites"), and how he became the patron saint there, and how he is figured freely on pre-Christian monuments with solar symbols in Britain. He and his Dragon-legend were clearly introduced and naturalized there by our Hittite or Catti Barat or "Briton" ancestors from Cappadocia and Cilicia long before the dawn of the Christian era.


These new-found facts and clues now disclose that not only St. George's Red Cross, but also the other associated Crosses in the Union Jack, namely, the Crosses of St. Andrew and St. Patrick, are also forms of the same Sun Cross.


Our Heraldic Crosses also are not only derived from the Hitto-Phśnicians, but even their actual Hittite names still persist attached to some of them, besides their generic name of "Cross." The "George" Cross we have already seen, and the "Cross saltire," or Andrew's Cross X, has its origin and meaning discovered in the next chapter. One of the other crosses or "bearings" in British Heraldry is called "Gyron" (Fig . 48 a), for which no obvious meaning has hitherto been found. Now this Gyron is seen to be practically identical with the Cross painted on ancient Hittite pottery from Cappadocia (see Fig. 48 b); and of a type bearing the Hitto-Sumerian name of Gurin or "The Manifold or Fructifying or Harvest Cross." {Br., 5903, 5907; also called Girin and Gurun. P.S.L., 168. See, Fig. 46 c, d, W for simpler forms. On "Harvest" cp. L.S.G. 275.}



FIG. 48.—"Gyron" Cross of British Heraldry is the "Gurin" Cross of the Hittites.


(b after Chantre. {C.M.C., Pl. 113, from Cćsarea, near the Halys R.}

Its truncated tops are apparently due to foreshortening on the

curved surface of the pottery.)


It seems to be a form of the Hittite Swastika with multiple feet as in Fig. 46 w and J'; which is also found on Early Briton monuments (Fig. 47 U and H2); and it appears to have been a solar luck-compelling talisman for fruit crops. It bears the synonym of Buru or "Fruit," i.e., "Berry," {Br., 5905.} and thus discloses the Hitto-Sumer origin of our English word "Berry."


The Swastika or "Revolving Cross" is now seen to have been figured in a great variety of ways. And significantly we find that all the varied Hitto-Phśnician and Trojan forms of the Swastika are reproduced on the monuments and coins of the Ancient Britons. It is figured as a rod with two feet passing through the Sun's disc (Fig. 46 l'), as a disc with angular teeth like a circular saw (l2) , a disc with tangent rays (O), disc with curved radii in direction of rotation (v' and N), key-pattern (x), all of which forms are found in Early Britain (Fig. 47) . The "Spiral ornament" itself is also now seen to be merely a form of the revolving Swastika.


The direction of movement of the revolving Sun, especially of the returning or "resurrecting" Sun, is also indicated on Hittite seals, not by feet but by fishes swimming towards the East, i.e., the left (see Figs. 42 and 49). A striking instance of the identity in motive of the Hittite and Briton representations of these solar symbols is seen in Fig. 49. The details of the Catti or Hittite seal of about 2000 B.C. are seen to be substantially identical with those on the old pre-Christian Cross at Cadzow (or Cads-cu, the "Koi" or town of the Cad or Phśnicians), the modern Hamilton, an old town of the Briton kingdom of Strath-Clyde, in the province of the Gad-eni—the Brito-Phśnician Gad or Cad or Catti.



FIG. 49.—Identity of Catti or Hittite Solar Monuments with those

of Early Britain.


a, b, Cadzow pre-Christian Cross (after Stuart). {S.S.S.T., 118. I have verified details on spot.}

c, Hittite seal of about 2000 B.C. (after Ward). {W.S.C., 991.}



In the Hittite seal (c) the revolving 8-rayed Sun with effluent rays is connected by bands to the setting Sun which has entered the Gates of Night or-Death, figured as barred doors. A short-tailed animal (Goat) is on each side, the left-hand one followed by the Wolf of Death (see later); and the direction of the Resurrecting Sun is indicated by two fishes swimming eastwards (to the left). The 5 circles (or "cups") = Taśia, the director of the Resurrecting Sun; the 4 circles = Death, repeated as 4 larger concentric circles. The Briton monument (a) reproduces essentially the same scene. The central spiral on the Cross turning towards the left is the equivalent of the revolving Sun returning to the East. Above it and the curved lines, representing the Waters of the Deep as on the Trojan amulets (Fig. 31), the fish is swimming to the East, whilst the dead fish on its back = the dead person. Below are two animals, one the horned Goat, and the other apparently the Wolf of Death. Surmounting all is Taśia with his horned head-dress overcoming the Lion adversaries (see later). In the reverse (b), is the two-footed Swastika surmounted by Taśia the Archangel. This Early Briton Cross is thus a solar invocation to Tasia for "Resurrection from Death, like the Sun."


Another form of the Swastika Sun Cross, differing somewhat in shape from the usual type as carved on the Phśnician pillar at Newton and elsewhere, is found on the pre-Christian Ogam monument at Logie in the neighbourhood of the Newton pillar (Fig. 5B, p. 20), and formed part of a Stone Circle. {One of the remaining four, all of which are carved with symbols which are now found to be solar, S.S.S., I, 4, and Pl. 3, Figs. 1 and 2 and Pl. 4, 1, and II, page xlviii.} This symbol is also found frequently on prehistoric stones in Scotland, and occurs also in the neighbourhood at Insch, Bourtie, and lower down the Don at Inverurie and Dyce with its Stone Circle, {S.S.S., and others on Pl. 14-16.} though not hitherto recognized as a Swastika or as associated with Sun-worship, and merely called by writers on antiquities "The Spectacles with broken Sceptre or Zig-zags," and of unknown meaning and symbolism.


This emblem, the so-called "Spectacles," carved on the lower portion of the Logie Stone, is now seen to be a decorated Swastika, in which the duplicated disc of the Sun (the so-called "lenses" of the Spectacles) replaces two of the limbs of the ordinary Swastika Cross, to represent the morning and evening Sun and the Sun-wise direction of movement from east to west (or left to right), as we have already found in the "Cup-mark" inscriptions and Sumerian seals. This direction of movement is graphically indicated by an arrow-head (the so-called "broken sceptre" of Scottish archaeologists) pointing in that direction, while the perpendicular stem is slanted to emphasize the movement and thus giving a [reverse-Z]-shape. The Hitto-Phśnician origin of this [p. 310] design is evident from the Phśnician {It is called a "Philistine" coin, but I find the Philistines were a branch of the Phśnicians.} coin from Gaza here figured (Fig. 50) in which darts are also used to show the



FIG. 50.—Swastika on Phśnician (or Philistine) Coin from Gaza

disclosing origin of the Scottish Spectacle darts.


(After Wilson and Ward.)

Note the darts show direction of the rotation.




direction of revolution as in the Scottish Swastika; and in Hittite seals the return revolution of the Sun is also indicated pictorially by darts (see Fig. 37 p. 248) as well as by the direction of swimming sea-fish, back to the rising Sun (see Fig. 49). {W.S.C., 993.} The double solar discs, connected by horizontal bands, as in the Scottish "Spectacles," are also carved in Hittite seals (see Fig. 59A, etc.); {Ib., 993. It is absolutely identical with prehistoric monuments in Scotland, S.S.S., Pl. 47. For Briton example, see Fig. 68B, p. 350.} and a Swastika with a central Sun disc is given on an ancient Sumerian seal; {Ib., 1307.} and also occurs on prehistoric Scottish monuments.


The retrograde movement of the victorious Sun through the Realms of Death is also figured on Briton monuments by darts placed at the ends of a rod-Swastika which transfixes the Serpent of Death (as in Fig. 51). Many specimens of this have survived; one of which forms "The Serpent Stone" now standing alongside the Newton Stone, and it is surmounted by the Double Sun-Disc or "Spectacles," {S.S.S., i. 37. The Serpent is the British adder.} and depicts the Victory of the Resurrecting Sun. Thus the proofs for the Catti or Hitto-Sumerian solar origin of the prehistoric "Spectacles" Swastikas in the Don Valley and elsewhere in Britain are absolute and complete.


On the coins of the Ancient Catti Britons the Sun Cross is figured very freely, in addition to the circle of the Sun itself noted in the previous chapter. It is figured in the form of the "short Cross" or "St. George's Cross" (see Figs. 3, 44, 47 A, W, etc.); also by pellets giving that form (Fig. 47 G', N', etc.); and as ornamental or decorated crosses and frequently by ears of corn of the "Tascio" Corn Spirit series, both perpendicularly as in the ordinary True Cross of short form (Fig. 47), and oriented or "saltire" in the style of St. Andrew's Cross, and associated with other emblems of the Sun-cult. And the "Rood screens" and "Rood lofts" in our Gothic cathedrals still attest the former prominence of the Cross or "Rood" in early and medieval Christianity in Britain, with its leading Gothic racial elements.



FIG. 51.—Swastika of Resurrecting Sun transfixing the Serpent

of Death on Ancient Briton monument at Meigle, Forfarshire.


(After Stuart.) {S.S.S. ii. Ill. Pl. 25, 17.}



The True Cross, thus venerated as the emblem of Universal Victory of the One God symbolized in the Sun, was worn on the person, as we have seen, on a necklace, for adoration or as an amulet or charm. The manner of holding the portable handled or pierced form of Cross for adoration or abjuration is seen in Fig. 52 from a Hittite seal, {Lajard in Mém. Acad. des Inscript. et Belles Lettres, 17, 361, from a Hittite cylinder in Bibliothčque Nat., Paris.} wherein additional rays of fiery light (or limbs of a St. Andrew's Cross) are added. As the Cross was made of wood, the ancient specimens have all now perished; but the frequent references in the Gothic Eddas to "The Wood" (which was made of the red Rowan Ash or "Quicken" Tree of Life), and its ash used for banishing devils and conquering enemies indicates its wide prevalence in Ancient Britain and Scandinavia. And the modern popular superstition "to touch Wood" in order to avert ill-luck is clearly a survival of this ancient "Sun-worship" of the wooden Cross. The meaning of this superstition is now seen to be, to touch the devil-banishing Wood Cross of Victory of the Sun-cult, which every Aryanized Briton carried on their person as a luck-compelling talisman against the devils and Druidical curses of the aboriginal Serpent-Dragon cult.


But neither the Cross on the pre-Christian Briton Cross monuments or carried on their persons and still carried on our national British standards, nor the Sun itself, of which the Cross was the symbol, were the objects of worship among these Early Aryans, so-called "Sun and Fire-worshippers," but the Supreme God behind the Cross and the Sun, as we shall see further in the next chapter.


In illustration of the Early Aryan hymns which our ancestral Sumero-Phśnician Britons offered up in adoration to the "God of the Sun" at their Cross monuments, and presumably also at their solar Stone Circles in early "pagan" Britain, let us hear what the orthodox Sumerian hymns to the Father God of the Sun sing over a thousand years before the birth of Abraham:—



"O Sun-God in the horizon of heaven thou dawnest !
The pure bolts of heaven thou openest !
The door of heaven thou openest !
Thou liftest up thy head to the world,
Thou coverest the earth with the bright firmament of heaven
Thou settest thy ear to the prayers of mankind;
Thou plantest the foot of mankind. . . ."

{Sumerian Hymns in C.I.W.A., 4, 20, 2, translated by Prof. Sayce (S.H.L., 491).}


*          *          *          *          *

"O Sun-God, judge of the world art thou !

Lord of the living creation, the pitying one who (directed) the world !

On this day purify and illumine, the king, the Son of God,
Let all that is wrought of evil within his body be removed !

Like the cup of the Zoganes cleanse him !

Like a cup of clarified oil make him bright !

Like the copper of a polished tablet make him bright !
Undo his illness. . . .
Direct the law of the multitudes of mankind !
Thou art eternal Righteousness in heaven !
Justice in heaven, a bond on earth art thou !
Thou knowest right, thou knowest wickedness !
Righteousness has lifted up its foot,
Wickedness has been cut by Thee as with a knife."

{Sumerian Hymns in C.I.W.A., 4, 28, 1 (S.H.L., 499 f.).}


"O Sun God, who knowest (all things) ! Thine own counsellor art thou !

Thy hands bring back to thee the spirits of all men.

Wickedness and evil dealing thou destroyest.

Justice and Righteousness thou bringest to pass. . . .

May all men be with Thee !" {Ib., 5, 50, 51 (S.H.L., 156).}

It will thus be seen that these pious ancestral early Aryan Sumerians under the bright beams of the Sun caught those still brighter beams of the Sun of Righteousness.


And the same "Sun-worship" is reflected in the Eddas of the Northern Goths, as, for instance, in the Solar Liod or "Lay of the Sun," an artless swan-song of a dying old Gothic chieftain, on his last view of the Sun at sunset:—


"I saw the Sun ! the shining Day-Star !

Drop down to his home i' the west !

Then Hell-gates heard I the other way

Thudding open heavily.


I saw the Sun set dropping to Hell's stoves,

Much was I then heel'd out o' home.

More glorious He look'd o'er the many paths

Than ever He had looked afore.


I saw the Sun ! and so thought I,

I was seeing the Glory of God.

To Him, I bow'd low for the hindmost time

From my old home i' this earth."

{For text see Ed. V.P., 1, 205, where is given a rather "free" translation. There are other stanzas which seem to be later additions of the Christian period.}

It will now be understood from these Sumerian, Vedic, Barat and other hymns of the Gentile Barat Khatti or Goths of the Cross-cult, how the Goths and Britons, already endowed with such an exalted religion, so readily embraced the religion of "Christ of Galilee of the Gentiles" and also transferred to it their sacred Cross—which they also called "Cross" or Garza—as it possessed so much in common with the old "pagan" religion of their own Gentile Gothic ancestors, the Getć, Gads, Guti, Catti, Khatti or "Hitt-ites."


We thus discover by a large series of facts that the Sun cult was widely prevalent in pre-Roman Britain under its Catti kings, and that it was introduced there about 2800 B.C. or earlier, by the sea-faring, tin-exploiting and colonizing Catti or Hitto-Phśnician Barats or Britons from Cilicia-Syria-Phśnicia, who were the Aryan ancestors of the present-day Britons.



FIG. 52.—St. Andrew, patron saint of Goths and Scots,

with his Cross.

(After W. Kandler.)