All footnotes have been renumbered;
the original text always started at “1” at each affected page.
In this transcription, special letters, letters with accents and the like have been rendered in regular English letters.
Originally posted July 2007 at http://www.jrbooksonline.com/burton.htm.
Footnotes on PREFACE (by Richard F. Burton).
1 Diario dal Navegacao, etc. Alluded to further on.
2 The Mutuca or Motuca, generally called Butuca, is the local gadfly (Hadaeus lepidotus. Perty). The Perna-lunga (Daddy-longlegs) is the true “Mosquito”, a Spanish term which well describes the Sand-, or “Little fly”, but which becomes ridiculous when applied to M. Maringouiu. The Pium (a Simulium) is the angry biter, better known as Borrachuda, the drunkard: it attacks you by day, and it is a little larger than the Carapani. The Mucuim or Mocoiui is a small scarlet Acarus: the term, however, is now generally applied to the sand-fly, by the “Indians” termed Maruim, and by the Portuguese “Polvora” (gunpowder). This is a prime pest in all unexposed places where the sea-breeze cannot blow them away; the infinitesimal fiends are most troublesome in the mornings and evenings, and they are said to rage most furiously at the change and full of the moon. Dira lues! rightly exclaims P. Anchieta.
3 It was called by the natives Guaimbe (Simam de Vasconcellos prefers Gaibe), from a pestilent weed which overran it. “Sanctus Maiurus” was a disciple of St. Benedict and the patron of broken bones.
4 The correct Tupi term was Ycayba, which we should write Isayba.
5 Memorias pars a Historia da Capitania de
6 Diario do Navegacao da Armada que foi a terra do Brasil em 1530. Escripto por Pedro Lopes de Souza e publicado em 1839, em Lisboa
por Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen, etc.
7 The change from old to new style was ordered by Pope Gregory XIII in A.D. 1582.
8 See “Amerigo Vespucci, son caractere, ses ecrits,
sa vie et ses Navigations”,
M. Varnhagen has not only established Vespucci’s character for rectitude and
integrity; he has also had the courage to prove the priority of the much
maligned navigator in American waters; and he makes it certain that Vespucci
saw the American continent in A.D. 1497-1498, while Columbus, who did not sight
it till August 1498, died in the belief that he had discovered the easternmost
9 There was no “Governor and Captain-General” till A.D. 1549, when that title was given by D. Joao III to the Captain of Sao Salvador da Bahia, that he might have authority over the other captaincies.
10 He must not be confounded with another “celebrated Indian”, Martini Alfonso de Souza, alias Ararigboia, who beat the French invaders in 1568.
11 See chapter xlii.
12 The “Brazil and River Plate Mail” (April 23rd, 1873) informs me that at length the Santos Docks, whose concession was modified by the decree of April 1st, 1873, are to be begun at once, and to be finished in five years. They are to consist of a floating apparatus 800 feet long by 210 wide. The other works will be an embankment 3000 feet long, from the Government wharf to near the Custom House; with wharves, warehouses, and landing-stages in the river-front; an enlarged Custom House and Marine Arsenal, in appropriate places, and a new street pierced through the city.
13 In the
14 Usually supposed to be a corruption of Boy-assu-canga, the big Boa’s
head. The Boa, properly speaking, does not exist in the
15 For the “ceremony of creating a town in the
16 I have noticed a similar surprise at that “templum mirae magnitudinis”, Na. Sa. da Conceicao dos Morrinhos on the Rio de S. Francisco (Highlands of the Brazil, ii, p. 271).
17 One morning I awoke and actually found a black Benedict in a most peculiar costume, placed right above my head. The white Saint Benedict in these regions is called Sao Bento.
18 The Royal Geographical Society calls everything above 1000 feet a mountain. In this matter I prefer Ritter, who extends the hill to 2000 feet, the low mountain to 4000, the middling to 6000, and the Alpine to 10,000. Beyond this height the altitude becomes gigantic (riesen gebirge).
19 The mangrove of these regions, as on the coast of
1. The white (a Myoporinea, called by the “Indians” Seroibatinga, Serei-tinga or Sereibuna (?), and by the Portuguese Maugue Manso, M. Branco and M. Amarello, or more generally Mangle Bravo) which grows a tall tree on sand-banks where salt water does not extend, and even on raised cliffs. Its bark, a strong astringent, is used in medicine and for tanning, and its straight trunk makes good telegraph posts, whilst the wood is one of the best for fuel.
2. The red (Rhizophora Mangle, Guapariba, Mangue Verdadeiro, Amarello or Vermelho) flourishes only where fresh and salt water meet, and it grows again at once if the roots be not cut. The bark is a more powerful astringent than that of the white; the wood supplies house rafters, and the ashes are used in sugar refineries. The people will not stake it in fish weirs, believing that the bark drives away the game. The red, but not the white, mangrove strikes down shoots like Banyan trees (Ficus Indica). To the vegeto-animal matter, which it collects round its roots the people attribute miasmatic and febrile etfeets.
The old monk, Yves d’Evreux, calls the mangroves “Aparturiers” and “Aparturies” (probably a parturiendo), and, by means of them, explained to his savages the “Mystery of the Incarnation”: the upper growth was the heavenly nature with the hypostatic union, the lower was the Incarnation. I need hardly cite St. Patrick and the Shamrock.
20 Others say that Manoel was a son of Doge A. Doria’s son, the Admiral who defeated the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571.
21 Anglice— Old
Look out, or they’ll treat you as they have treated me.
22 Throughout the
Footnotes on INTRODUCTION, THE “INDIANS” OF THE
1 This ancient author, for whom see the Introduction, seems not to have been free from the belief that there were truly national or racial differences; yet he owns of the coast peoples, however much they had been divided, that, “Todavia na semelhanca, condicao, costumes e ritos gentilicos todos sao uns.”
2 Pero Lopes de Souza, in A.D. 1532, found on the Plata River a people speaking Guarani, and calling themselves Nhandu, or the Emas (Struthio Americana). Many authors have assumed that “Guarani” was the racial name of the Brazilian savages, whilst “Tupi” applied only to a certain section.
3 Etymologically and literally Tupinamba (Tupi-anama-aba) signifies “uncle warriors,” or a “people related to Tupis”. The latter word may be written Tupi, or with the older writers Tupy. I shall prefer the former, and similarly Guaraní (not Guaráni, as in Southey) to Guarany. In the Brazilian tongue the terminal -y’ was pronounced mostly like the Greek “epsilon” and the French “u”. Thus “P’ty’,” tobacco—whence the Brazilian words “Pitar,” to smoke, and “Pitada,” a pinch of snuff—was phonetically written Betum and Pitun. It is, therefore, safer to use the “i.”
4 M. J. de Alencar, “O Guarany” (vol. i, p. 353), considers that “Tupi” was used only by certain peoples, and that the great race, which had conquered the country and had expelled, or absorbed the older owners, was generically called Guarany. Hence he makes the latter signify “Indigena Brasileiro”.
5 See sub voce, “Diccionario da Lingua Tupy, par A. Goncalves Dias”. Lipsia, Brockhaus, 1858.
6 So Fr. Gaspar tells us that the Tamoyos of Ubatyba (Ubatuba), Larangeiras,
and Angra dos Reis, offended by Portuguese pride, allied themselves with those
of Rio de Janeiro, and in A.D. 1556 nearly annihilated the whites of Sao
Vicente. Santo Amaro was the theatre of war, and we see in Hans Stade, the
Fazendas and Casas Fortes were ravaged, whilst the fort of Sao Felippe was
threatened. These troubles ended by the good offices of PP. Nobrega and
Anchieta, whilst Men de Sa conquered the tribes of
7 For instance, in the Captaincy of Sao Vicente, we find the people called by different authors Guaianas, Temiminos, Tupinambas, Tupiniquins, Maracayas, Bugres, etc., etc. Soares and Gandavo give the following list of tribes beginning from the south. In the actual provinces of Rio Grande do Sud and Santa Catherina, the “Carijos”; on the littoral of Sao Paulo, the “Guianas” (also called Goayana, Guayana, and Goana, in the plural Goayanazes and Guayanazes); and to the north of them, according to the Jesuits, “Temiminos”; “Tamoyos” in Rio do Janeiro; “Guaitacazes” and Papanazes in Espirito Santo; “Tupiniquins” in Porto Seguro; “Aymores” in the Ilheos; “Tupinambas”, men related to Tupis) on the seaboard of Bahia; and “Tupinaens”, “Amoipiras”, “Maracas”, and “Ubirajaras”, in the interior. Pernambuco had the “Caites”, and further north were the “Petiguares” or “Potiguares”. Finally, throughout the back-woods and unconquered interior were the so-called “Tapuia” nation, of old written “Tapuya” and “Tapyuya”, which simply meant barbarians (Varnhagen’s note, vol. i, p. 448).
8 This corrects Southey (ii, 526)—“The Nheengaibas seem not to have been a Tupi race”, etc.
9 It exactly corresponds with the useful Hindostani affix—“Wala”, a man, and it also becomes in composition Guara, Goara, Pora, and so forth.
10 Others translate the name “Warriors of the chief Poti” (i.e., the Shrimp).
11 Near the Ubira jaras are supposed to have lived the ancient “Amazons.”
Ubira is also written Ybyra and Ymyra, meaning a tree, wood, etc.
Ybyra-pitanga, red wood, is that which gave a name to the
12 According to P. S. de Vasconcellos, “Toba” moans the face, and “yara”, lords: the whole meaning the “owners of the face of the country”, i.e., the seaboard as opposed to the Sertao (back-woods). A. Goncalves Dias (Poesias, p. 418) preserves the transliteration “Tobajaras”, but explains it Tibajitras, lords of villages. Taba was the village composed of several Ocas (houses, the old French “Carbets”); when the latter were isolated they took the name of “Tejupab”or Tejupabe: for the latter word, see Note to chap. xxi.
13 The etymon is derived from Taba, a village, and “Puya”, to fly; i.e., those who fly the villages, barbarians, savages, enemies. So the Bedawin call themselves Ahl-bayt, tented men, opposed to the villagers, Ahl-hayt, wall-men, who inhabit houses.
14 The savages seem to have made a study of Monhang-pora, or the mysteries of generation; hence they practised the Basque Gesine, or Couvade, which has now a literature of its own. This subject will presently recur.
15 I should rather say from Guura, an inhabitant, and therefore lord of the
soil, not subject to any owner. Padre Lacueva (D’Orbigny, L’ Homme
Americain, ii, 313) derives from it “Guarayu”, i.e., “
16 Not a few writers (for instance, Washington Irving, Life of Columbus) boldly derive the Tupis from the
Apalachian mountains of the northern continent, across the Mexican Gulf—that
New World Mediterranean, whose eastern shores are continuous archipelagoes—and
the Caribbean Sea, to the shores of Paria, Guiana, and Amazonia. Another
traditional account of their origin brings them up from the
17 The first commander who reached the
It is not a little curious that the Brazilian historians give a subordinate
rank to the discovery of Pinzon, who struck
This is but the official discovery of
I have elsewhere attempted to show that what civilization belonged to the barbarians of the Brazil was introduced by the European castaways thrown on shore by the famous equatorial current, which carried Cabral to the New World, and thus to explain the fact of the coast having been missionarised by St. Thomas, the unbelieving Apostle. The ancients have also claims to the discovery. According to Silva Lisboa (Annaes do Rio de Janeiro), at the Villa das Dores, two leagues from Montevideo, a stone covering a brick tomb was found to bear in Greek characters the name of Macedonian Alexander, and beginning “‘In these places Ptolemy’. . . . There was also found the shell of a sword-hilt, showing the effigy of Alexander, and a helmet upon which Achilles was dragging the corpse of Hector.” Meanwhile, we would ask, where are these most important relics?
Again, we recently hear from Dr. Ladislao Netto, Director of the Museum, Rio
de Janeiro, that a stone has been found at Parahyba containing “eight lines of
the most beautiful Phoenician characters, without separation of words, without
vowel points and quiescent letters.” The purport of the inscription is, that
the Canaanites, as they call themselves (?), left Eziongeber (Akaha), and
sailed for eleven (twelve?) novilunes (lunar mouths) along the
18 Damiao de Goes, in his Chronica de El Rei D.
Manoel, expressly says that Goncalo Coelho set out with six ships on
19 In 1550 appeared a German translation of the letters of Cortes, entitled
“Ferdinandi Cortesii von dem newen Hispanien so im Meer gegen Niedergang, zwei
lustige historien erstlich in Hispaniachen Sprache durch himselbsts beschrieben
and verteuscht von Xysto Betuleio und Andrea Diethero.”
20 The existing state of geographical knowledge, as regards the
21 Lacroix du Maine supposed that Thevet published in 1556, but he was certainly in error.
22 In A.D. 1560, Father Jose de Anchieta wrote his “Epistola
quamplurimarum rerum naturalium; quae
23 Meanwhile, two
24 Copy of a letter written to Mr. Richard Staper by John Whithall, from
“Worshipfull sir, and welbeloued friend, Mr. Staper, I haue me most heartily commended unto you, wishing your health euen as mine owne.
“These few words may bee to let you understand, that whereas I wrote unto you not many dayes past by the way of Lisbon, howe that I determined to bee with you very shortly; it is in this country offered mee to marry, and to take my choice of three or foure, so that I am about three dayes agoe consorted with an Italian gentleman to marry with his daughter within these four dayes. This, my friend and father-in-law, Signor Joffo Dore (Doria), is born in the citie of Genoa, in Italy; his kindred is well knowen amongst the Italians in London; also hee hath but onely this childe, which is his daughter, which he hath thought better bestowed upon mee than on any Portugal in this country, and doeth give with her in marriage to me part of an Ingenio which he hath, that doeth make euery yeare a thousand roues of sugar. This my marriage will be worth to mee two thousand dockets, little more or lesse. Also Signor Joffo Dore, my father-in-lawe, doeth intende to put into my haunds the whole Ingenio, with sixtie or seuentie slaues, and thereof to make me factor for us both. I give my liuing Lord thankes for placing me in such honour and pleutifulnesse of all things.
“Also, certaine dayes past I talked with the Prouedor and Captaine, and they haue certified me, that they haue discoucred certaine mines of siller & gold, & looked every day for masters to come to open the said mines; which, when they be opened, will inrich this countrey very much. This place is called S. Vincent, and is distant from you two thousand leagues, and in 24 degrees of latitude on the south side of the equinoctial line, and almost under the Tropike of Capricorne, a countrey it is very healthfull, without sicknesse.
“Moreouer, I haue talked with the Captaine and Prouedor, and my
father-in-lawe, who rule all this countrey, for to have a ship with goods to
come from London hither, which have promised mee to give mee license, saying
that nowe I am free denizen of this countrey. To cause a ship to come hither
with such commodities as would servo this their countrey, would come to great
pines, God sending in safety the profite and gaines.
In such wares and commodities as you may ship hither front
“I meane, also, to have a friend in
“Also I herewith write unto you in what forme and maner you shall furnish this voyage in commodities and otherwise.
“First, you must lade in the same ship certaine Hampshire & Devonshire
karsies; for the which you must let her depart from London in October, and to
touch in the Canaries, and there to make a sale of the said karsies, and with
the proceed thereof to lade fifteen tunnes of wines that be perfect &
goode, & sixe dozen of Cordovan skinnes of these colours, to wit: orange,
tawnie, yellow, red, & very fine black. I thick you shall not finde such
colours there; therefore, you must cause them that go upon this voyage to take
saffron with them, to cause the same skinnes to bee put into the said colours.
Also, I thinke you shall finde oyles there. Three hogsheads of sweete oyle for
this voyage are very necessary, or a hundred and fifty canes of oyle. Also, in
“Imprimis, Foure peeces of hollands of middle sort.
“Item, One piece of fine holland.
Four hundred elles of osonbriges, very fine.
Four dozen of scizzors, of all sorts.
Sixteene kintals of pitch, of the Canaries.
&c. &c. &c.
“These be such sort of wares as I would you should send, if you meane to deale, or send any ship hither. Have you no doubt, but, by the helpe of God, I shall put all things in good order according to your contentment and profit; for my father-in-lawe, with the Capitaine and Provedor, doe rule this country. My father-in-law and I shall (God willing) make a good quantitie of sugar every yeere, which sugar we intend to ship for London from henceforth, if we can get such a trustie and good friend as you to Beale with us in this matter. I pray you presently after the receipt of this my letter to write me answere thereof, and send your letter to Mr. Holder to Lisbone, and he will convey it to me out of hand.
“Besides the premises, send size
Skulef parchment lace of diuers colours.
Sixe yards of crimosin velvet.
Sixe yards of crimosin satten.
Twelve yards of fine puke blacke.
“Here, in this couutrey, instead of John Whithall, they have called me John Leitoan; so that they have used this name so long time, that at this present there is no remedie, but it must remaine so. When you write unto me, let the superscription be unto John Leitoan.
“Thus I commit you, with all yours, to the Holy Ghost for ever.
“If you send this ship, I would have you give this order,
that she touch in no part of the coast of
“Also a dozen shirts for my wearing let be sent, if you send the ship.
“Item, size or eight pieces of sayes for mantles for women, which is the most necessary thing that can be sent.
“By your assured friend,
25 There was long a mystery about this anonymous “Roteiro geral com largas
informacoes de toda a costa que pertence ao Estado do Brasil, e descripcao de
muitos lugares delle, especialmente de Bahia de Todos os Santos”, dedicated to
Christovam de Moura in 1587. The
26 Here come the Historiarum Indicarum Libri XVI, Florentiae, 1588, which give a short account of the Brazil, and the MS. of Domingos d’Abreu de Brito.
27 See “Voyage dans le nord du Bresil, fait durant les annees 1613 et 1614, par le Pere Yves d’Evreux. Publie d’apres l’exemplaire unique conserve a la Bibliotheque Imperiale de Paris. Avec une Introduction et des notes par M. Ferdinand Denis, conservateur a la bibliotheque sainte Genevieve. Leipzig et Paris, Librairie A. Franck, Albert L. Herold, 1864.” Admirably edited and well printed, this number of the “Bibliotheca Americana” forms a text-book for students, who can rely with confidence upon the judgment and the learning of M. Denis.