FOOTNOTES to Quinlan's Tom Quick the Indian Slayer.
[Originally among the book's chapters]

Ch. I

1 A man named Thomas Quick, among others, took the "oath of allegiance in ye county of Vlster, by order of His Excelly: ye Gouernor; ye ffirst day of September anno qe: domini 1689." From this it may be inferred that the Quicks came to this country sooner than the family tradition indicates. See the Documentary History of New York, Vol. 1, page 280.

2 The foundation of the dam of his mills, one of his descendents informs us, was visible a few years since.

3 Indian names of rivers, &c. as laid down in a map printed in 1779.

4 Some of the pioneers of Cochecton have been heard to say that they had seen Cashiegtonch island, near the Indian burying ground of that town, "covered with Indians, and some of them were fine, noble fellows."

Ch. IV

1 Lossing's Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution.

2 According to Chapman, the "colony" at Cushetunk was commenced in 1757. In 1760, they had thirty houses, a saw and a grist mill, and a block house, together with several large log houses. The number of houses is probably over estimated. The same writer says a settlement was commenced at Menesink about the same time, which was driven off in consequence of the Indian title not having been extinguished.

Daniel Skinner, whose descendants still live in this region, was one of the pioneers of Cushetunk. He was born March 22d, 1733, in the town of Preston, New London county, Connecticut. His father was one of the original proprietors of a large tract of land, which was purchased of the Six Nations, and which included Cushetunk. He moved to Cushetunk with his wife and children. The names of the latter were Benjamin, Timothy, Abner, Daniel, Haga, Calvin, Joseph, Martha, and Hulda. Shortly after, he, with others, went to the Indian country to make some arrangement in regard to the purchase. On his way back, he was killed by some person unknown. Not returning as soon as he was expected, his friends concluded that he had been murdered, and in consequence his wife went back to Preston. Mr. Skinner's body was found, shortly after, where he had been shot, on the bank of a small run, that enters the Delaware a short distance above the present residence of Hon. James C. Curtis. A prayer book, with his name on the fly leaf, was found in one of his pockets, which led to the identification of his remains.


1 It is said that his dog was of great service to him on such occasions, and that he hated the Indians quite as much as his master.


1 The writer has heard these stories related by some of the old settlers. His only apology for introducing them here is to show some of the incidents of pioneer life in Sullivan, and to make a chapter of more length than the actual incidents of the evening would make.


1 POUGHKEEPSIE, AUG. 17.—We have certain accounts that Andrieson and Osterhout, who were taken by the Indians and tories at Legewegh in Ulster county, some time ago, made their escape from them when within one day's march of Niagara, and are returned home. They were committed to the charge of three Indians, one a captain, and two squaws, who treated them with great severity, threatened to kill Osterhout, who from fatigue and hunger could not travel as fast as they would have him. At night, the Indians thinking themselves secure from their great distance back into the country, went to sleep; when Andrieson proposed to Osterhout to seize the opportunity of putting them to death; which (Osterhout declining) he executed himself by very expeditiously tomahawking the three Indians before they were so far recovered from their sleep as to make any effectual resistance. The squaws waking with the noise, took to their heels and escaped. Andrieson and Osterhout, possessing themselves of the Indians' provisions, consisting of 3 or 4 ducks and 2 quarts of samp, with the most valuable part of the Indians' plunder, consisting of some fine linen shirts, a laced beaver hat, with other articles of clothing, and some silver, with each of them a gun, set out for home, where they arrived after 17 days' march, much worn out with fatigue and hunger, but in high spirits."—Connecticut Journal; Sept. 2, 1778.

2 After the war, the whigs of the frontier were in the habit of catching the tories who had rendered themselves peculiarly obnoxious, and treating them in the following manner: 1st. A good and substantial suit of tar and feathers was given them gratis. 2nd. An ornament greatly resembling a hog yoke was placed upon their necks, to one end of which a jewel shaped like a cow bell was attached, and to the other a cord, which, it may well be believed; was not made of silk. 3rd. A sable son of Congo next took hold of one end of the cord, and the culprit was drummed out of the neighborhood to the tune of the "Rogue's March," the African occasionally giving the cord a jerk, and setting the clapper of the bell in motion, while the populace hurled at the returned tory sundry missiles known as rotten eggs, &c., and spurred him forward with bayonets, sharp sticks "and so on." Lynch law is more ancient than many suppose.


1 Shurker was suspected of being a tory. Not long before he was murdered, one of his neighbors told him that he was an enemy of his country. He asserted his innocence so loudly, that it was thought he was overheard by a tory or Indian who was lurking in the woods close by.

Ch. XV

1 The facts contained in this chapter are gleaned from a pamphlet written by the late Charles G. DeWitt. Many of the paragraphs we have quoted, making a few unimportant alterations.


1 "We have advice from Warwarsing in Ulster county, that on Tuesday last, the 4th inst., a party of the enemy, supposed to be mostly tory inhabitants, burnt four dwelling-houses and five barns in that neighborhood at the Fantine Kill and killed six people, besides three or four more who are supposed to be burnt in their houses. Advice of the mischief being brought to Col. Cortlandt, stationed there with his regiment, he immediately marched in pursuit of the enemy, whom he twice got sight of on a mountain, exchanged some shots with them, though at too great a distance, and endeavored to surround them, but in vain; they all made their escape. In their flight they left a young woman whom they had taken, from whom we received the account, that their number was 3 Indians, and 27 white savages."—Connecticut Journal, May 19th, 1779.


1 "Early on the morning of the 22d ult., a party of Indians and tories, consisting of about 400, entered the beautiful settlement of Warwarsing, situated on the great road leading from Minisink to Esopus about 35 miles from the former; at their first coming to the place, they were hailed by a sentinel who was at the gate of a piquet fort where was a sergeant's guard kept, (which were the only soldiers in that quarter;) they not making any answer, induced the sentinel to fire and run within the fort, which alarmed the garrison. The enemy kept up a constant fire upon the fort for some time, but without effect, and at last retired in confusion, with the loss of three killed and two wounded. They then proceeded to burning and plundering the place. The inhabitants being alarmed by the firing at the fort, all made their escape except one John Kettle, whom they killed. The loss of these poor people is very great; the fate of an hour reduced them from a state of ease and affluence to want and beggary. Thirteen elegant dwelling-houses, with all the outbuildings and furniture, 14 spacious barns filled with wheat, besides barracks, stables, stacks of hay, and grain were all consumed. Between 60 and 70 horses, mostly very fine, a great number of cattle, sheep, and hogs, were driven off. Capt. Pauling, getting intelligence of the above, immediately collected about 200 New York levies and militia, and pursued them about 40 miles; but was not able to overtake them. It appeared that they fled in confusion, as they left a considerable quantity of plunder behind them in many places. By a white man who has been with them three years, and made his escape while Warwarsing was in flames, we learn that this party was from Niagara, and that they were 4 weeks and 3 days on their way; that they were exceedingly distressed for want of provisions, insomuch that they eat up their pack-horses and dogs. He adds that the garrison of Niagara was in a melancholy situation for the want of provisions and the necessaries of life, and that the tories there most bitterly execrate the day they were deluded by the tyrant's emissaries to take up arms against their native country."—Connecticut Journal, Oct. 11, 1781.

"Colonel Pauling arrived at the outskirts in time to catch a glimpse of the enemy's rear, and to relieve some of the inhabitants, among whom were a man and his wife, who had conducted themselves with distinguished bravery. His house was constructed of unhewn logs, in the woods, and in advance of all others. On the appearance of the foe, he fled to his castle with his wife, and 'securing it in the best manner he could, gave battle to a party of the Indians who laid seige to his fortress. Being well armed, he defended himself with so much spirit, that they recoiled with loss. Finding, after several attempts, that they could not force an entrance, the Indians collected a heap of combustibles, and set fire to the premises. Retiring a short distance to see the result, the man watched his opportunity, and rushing out with a couple of buckets, he procured water, which was close at hand, and extinguished the fire. The Indians, of course, ran down upon him; but not being quick enough of foot to prevent his gaining the door, hurled their tomahawks at his head—happily without effect. He entered his castle, made fast his sally-port, and re-commenced his defence. Just at this moment Colonel Pauling with his troops appeared in sight, whereupon the Indians raised the seige and departed."—Stone's Life of Brant.

2 The army of Caldwell passed through Grahamsville, thence to the Neversink, and down that river to the path which crossed to the mouth of the Lackawaxen.


1 Before the war closed, Young lost all he possessed, and was subsequently very poor.

2 This is according to the recollection of our informant, who entertains an unfavorable opinion of the scouts. It is probable that Cooley was well known to some of the party as a man who had committed a great offence.


1 Historical Collections of New-York.

2 Brant made more than one descent upon Minisink. On the 13th of October, 1778, he invaded Peenpack and the neighboring settlements with about one hundred followers, and murdered several of the settlers. The alarm was given in time for most of the inhabitants to flee to the block houses, of which there were three, one known as Fort DeWitt, another as Fort Gumaer, and the third as Fort Deput. All who were caught out of the block houses were murdered. They were pursued through the fields and woods, and shot or tomahawked. A young man named Swartwout attempted to escape by swimming the Neversink. Just as he gained the opposite shore, he was shot. Three of his brothers and father were killed. One of the brothers reached a block house near by, and escaped. In Fort Gumaer, there were but nine men, and the commander, whose name was Cuddeback, caused the women to put on men's clothes, and parade around the fort with their husbands, sons, and brothers, when the Indians made their first appearance, and were at such a distance that they could not detect the ruse. The natives, in consequence of this strata-gem, passed by the block house at such a distance that the few shots which were fired at them were harmless. Fort DeWitt was not attacked, and the other fort was not occupied.

Most of the barns and houses in the neighborhood were burnt, and the cattle driven off.

It is probable that Count Pulaski was stationed in Minisink but a few weeks or months.

3 Stone's Life of Brant.

4 Stone's Life of Brant.

5 Stone's Life of Brant.

6 Moses Thomas, 2d, enlisted during the early part of the war, and was with the army some time at West Point and Newburgh. Becoming dissatisfied with his officers, he hired a substitute, and returned to his family, who were in Minisink. When Brant fell upon that point, Thomas volunteered, and was killed as stated. His widow married a man named Nathan Chapman, and they removed to the valley of the Wyoming, where he was murdered by the Indians. Chapman and a Mr. Jamison were in company on horseback, when they were fired upon by some savages who were in ambush. Jamison fell dead, and his companion, although fatally injured, clung to his horse until he reached a house, where he soon after died. Mrs. Chapman subsequently married a Mr. Jesse Drake. Her descendants are among the most respectable inhabitants of Cochecton.

7 For the oration delivered on the occasion, see Appendix A.


1 The whole region from Gales to the Delaware Barrens was known to the hunters, in old times, as the "Foul Woods" - not the "Fowl Woods," as some now pretend. These woods received their name from a thick undergrowth of rhododendrons and other dwarfish shrubs, which rendered it almost impossible to travel through them. Lord's pond is still styled "Fould Wood Lake" by many.

2 "Shawan," says one of the authors of the Historical Collections of New-York, "in the language of the Mohegan Indians, means white salt, and gunk, rocks or piles of rocks." It is not probable that the writer alluded to has been misled, and that the mountain received its name from the Shawanese tribe, which once obtained a foothold here? According to another work, "Shawan" is the Indian word for east and "gunk" or "unk," means mountain. May not the signification of Shawangunk be simply "the eastern mountain?"


1 Another account says that the Indians took the rifle. We suspect, however, that this is a mistake, as many of the old inhabitants of the Delaware valley recollect seeing it in his possession after his escape, and describe it minutely.

2 The author believes that a part of this chapter is apocryphal. The principal incidents, however, he thinks, actually occurred.


1 Canope was a native of Cochecton. He and his mother lived with his grandfather, whose name was Abraham, in a swamp, near the Ruso brook. The locality is known as Abraham's swamp to this day. Nothing is remembered of his father. When Canope was a pappoose, his mother took him to the houses of the whites frequently, and as he grew up, he became an associate of the boys of the neighborhood. He was a fine lad, and was highly esteemed by the pioneers, particularly by the young men. On one occasion, he was drowned in the Delaware while bathing. He was rescued by Moses Thomas 2nd, and Elias Thomas, who heard him struggling in the water. When his mother was told how his life had been saved, the simple and earnest manner in which she expressed her gratitude was quite touching.

2 Shimer, we believe, is pronounced Shamer. This is the reason, probably, why those who are conversant with the events of this chapter, from having lived near the place where they occurred, do not agree in regard to his name.

3 Ben Haines has not been dead for many years. Quite a number of men who are yet in the prime of years remember him well. He always considered the murder of Canope a very praiseworthy deed, and boasted of the part he took in the affair. It is singular that our government permitted such a wretch to go "unwhipt of justice."

4 One of our correspondents differs from all the others in describing this affair. He says:

"At the time of the murder of Canope I was between seven and eight years of age ... Some time in 1784, three Indians came to the house of Joseph Ross. Their names were Nicholas, Ben Shanks and Canope. While they staid there they amused themselves by shooting across the river at a large chestnut tree, which is still standing. They several times went from the house of Ross to David Young's. In doing this they passed my father's place, which gave me frequent opportunities to see them. How long they remained in the neighborhood I am unable to say. After they left we heard nothing more about them until the report came that Canope had been killed at Handsome Eddy. The report was that Ben Haines and Shimer, in a hunting expedition, discov­ered these Indians on the waters of the Shehola, where they had encamped, and were just commencing to trap for beaver. Haines having been well acquainted with them before the war, accosted them in the most friendly manner, calling them brothers, and assuring them that he was overjoyed to find in them his old associates. The Indians having just killed a deer, the whole party heartily and amicably partook of a meal of venison. After this the Indians invited their brother pale faces to visit them again, and Haines invited his brother red men to visit him. They thus parted on apparent friendly terms. The white men had gone but a short distance before Shimer proposed to return, kill the Indians, and take their traps and rifles. To this Haines replied that it would be too dangerous; that they could not expect to kill more than two at the first shot; that there would be one left with three loaded rifles, while theirs would be empty, and that he would shoot both of them before they could reload. "Let them catch the beaver and other game," said he, "and then we can get cousin Tom to help us. He will be delighted to have a chance to kill them." So when they supposed the Indians had caught the game, and prepared the skins, they applied to cousin Tom. To their surprise, he refused to go into the woods where there were Indians. He consented, however, to assist them if Haines would entice the savages to the river. Accordingly Haines prevailed on two of them to come out, by agreeing to protect them and take their furs to Minisink and exchange them for such articles as they needed. After he had got them to his house he induced them to go with him to fish on a certain rock, where, by a preconcerted plan, Shinier and Quick were in ambush. As soon as the Indians were in a convenient position, the two white men fired. Shimer's bullet took effect and wounded Canope, but Quick missed his Indian, who escaped. Canope ran to brother Ben for protection, when the latter said, "Pant, d—n you! for you have not a minute to live!" and then knocked him on the head with a pine knot. Shimer was taken and put in jail, where he remained some time, but was finally liberated. Haines and Tom sculked about from one place to another to keep out of the reach of sheriffs and consta­bles until Shimer was set at liberty, when they again came out boldly among the people. Shimer, while in prison, complained much of the unfairness of keeping him confined, while Ben and Tom, who were equally culpable, were permitted to be at large."


1 The shad fishery at Cochecton was at one time not altogether despicable. The pioneers caught this delicious fish by making a "rack" at some convenient place, with wings formed of cobble stones and extending to each shore. They forced the shad into the "rack" by drawing an immense "brush net" or "drag," a mile or two down the stream. The fish were thus driven into the "rack" in great numbers. After the shad spawned they died; and their carcasses were thrown upon shore by the water; where they became putrid, and rendered the air anything but sweet and wholesome. In the fall, a great many of the young shad, while on their way to the sea; were killed by falling into "eel racks," or by getting bruised in passing through them. When they ran down stream they were from four to six inches in length, and so tender that the least injury was fatal to them. The "racks" probably exterminated the Delaware shad.

2 Daniel Skinner was the first person who descended the Delaware, from Cochecton, with a raft. His first "venture" was soon after the French and Indian war. Our informant assisted him in rafting in 1792. As soon as raftmen became numerous enough to gain an appellation, Skinner, by general consent, was constituted Lord Admiral of all the rafting navigation of the river. No one was free to engage in the business without his sanction, and this was obtained in no other way than by presenting him with a bottle of wine. When this was done, the neophyte was at liberty to go to Philadelphia as a forehand. To gain the privilege of officiating as steersman, another bottle was necessary. On giving this, the person who presented it was authorized to run a raft in all channels except one (C— B—,) if he navigated which, he was obliged to "treat" with the third bottle. Josiah Parks having been down the river many times with the Admiral, and being a noisy and obstreperous character, was constituted boatswain, and was known as "Old Boson" during the remainder of his life.

3 One of our correspondents says: "My father's house at Cushetunk, (or rather the place where we stayed—for it consisted of a few logs thrown together and covered with bark,) was for several years a principal stopping place. There were but few houses in Cochecton where the traveller could be lodged even on a somewhat primitive floor. Some remained with us two or three days, and others as many weeks. In those days, there was no way to get to Cochecton except by pushing a canoe thirty five or forty miles up the river, or by travelling on an Indian path the same distance through a wilderness where a carriage could not be drawn. Yet many found the way to Cochecton by the powers of feet and legs, or the strength of hands and arms. "Confused, unnumbered multitudes were found,"—some moving farther up the river; some on the way to Niagara—some coming to raft—others to speculate, and some to peculate.

'Each talked aloud, or in some secret place,
'And wild, impatient, stared in every face:

"The greater part had been, or intended to be, concerned in the affairs of the country. Their conversation naturally led to the transactions and troubles on the Delaware during the French and Revolutionary wars,

There at one passage, oft you might survey
A lie and truth contending for the sway;
There various news I heard of love and strife,
Of war and peace, health, sickness, death and life,
Of loss and gain, of famine and of store,
Of rafting down stream—walking up the shore,
Of old possessions occupied anew," &c.


1 Callicoon is a Dutch word, signifying turkey.


1 The pioneers of Mamakating knew that the Indians obtained their lead not far from Wurtsborough. The natives always refused to show where it was to be found, and generally became angry whenever the mine was alluded to. Even the white men who were in part or wholly domesticated with them, could not get any information from them in regard to it. At last, a white hunter named Miller dogged them, at the risk of his life, until he ascertained that they got the ore near a certain clump of hemlock trees, which were the only ones of the kind within a considerable distance. He heard them at work, but did not dare to go to the locality until a considerable time afterwards when he was sure the savages were not in the vicinity. Miller intended to tell this to a man named Daniel Gunsaulis. He told him the lead was on the mountain, near the hemlocks, pointed them out from the valley, and promised to go with him to the mine after he had made a visit to his friends in Orange county. He went, but died at Montgomery during his visit there. Gunsaulis never attempted to profit by what Miller had told him. In 1813, however, he communicated what he knew of the matter to our venerable townsman, Daniel Niven, Esq., who, in 1817, hired a man named Mudge to assist him in searching for the lead, and they succeeded in finding it. A quantity of the ore was sent to Doctor Mitchell and others, chemists. Mr. Niven made a confidant of Moses Stanton, a resident of Wurtsborough, who, as well as Mudge, insisted upon sharing the profits which were expected to be made from the discovery, and the three became partners. Not long after, those who had analyzed the ore endeavored to purchase the mine of Mr. Niven and his associates. But the discoverers found a difficulty in the way of selling. The land did not belong to them, and it was not known who did own it. So the matter rested until 1836—Mr. Niven and his partners mutually agreeing not to make any disclosure concerning the matter unless with the consent of all three. Their secret, however, was revealed after it had been faithfully kept for almost twenty years. Stanton had an awkward habit of talking while asleep, and one night, while his eye lids were closed, he spoke of the location of the mine so distinctly that his son, who was present, had no difficulty in finding it. Young Stanton was so fortunate as to ascertain who some of the owners of the land were, and he made some five hundred dollars by keeping his ears open while his father was "dreaming aloud!"

2 We have heard the following related of Tom's last sickness, etc., in neighborhoods more than fifty miles from each other:

The Indian Killer caught the small pox when he was quite old, and it was soon ascertained that he could not live more than a few hours. He was told that death would soon seize him, when he expressed sorrow because he had not been able to kill Indians enough to make an even hundred! "And," runs the legend, "he was the means of destroying a much greater number than he wished to kill, for as soon as the red skins learned that he was dead they dug up his body, cut it into small pieces, and sent the pieces to all the Indian villages far and near. They had not an opportu­nity to burn him while he was alive, so they sent his remains to their friends to be burned after he was dead. By this means the smallpox was spread all over the Indian country, and incredible numbers died with it!"

That Tom died of old age, we have the testimony of a gentleman who was with him at the time, and who attended his funeral.

3 The remains of one of these ancient guns are in the possession of the author. They were found, after this chapter was first published, on land owned by Mr. Hiram Jacoby, of Thompson. They are venerable and somewhat rusty relics of a by-gone age.

4 See Appendix B.


1 Phytologia.

2 It is now supposed that he was of pure Mohawk extraction.

3 "Hapless he falls by wounds which the cruel foe inflicted, looks to heaven for aid, and dying remembers his sweet native plains."